I'll link to my previous threads for the history, but I will mention that (as with other instances in history), the Muslims that conquered much of the Eastern Roman Empire and the whole of the Sassanian Empire needed to keep the native populations of these areas happy to cement their control. One way they did this was the continuation of the existing coinage styles (but with slight alterations to make them more Arab- and Muslim-friendly). The Romans kept their folles and the Persians kept their drachms (refered to as fals and dirham respectively by the Arabs). This situation lasted until the coinage reform enacted by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-malik ibn Marwan in 696-697 AD completely eliminated images from the coins and replaced them entirely with Arabic words and phrases. I'm sure you're wondering about part of the thread title. The photo of the reverses might give you a clue . Anonymous, Umayyad Caliphate AE fals Obv: KA/L/ON in left field, "bi-Hims" (in Arabic) in right field, facing bust, beardless, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger in right hand Rev: Large m, E/M/I in left field, two birds eyes above, C/H/C in right field, "tayyib" (Arabic for "good") in ex Mint: Hims (Emessa) Date: 680-690 AD Ref: Album 110; SICA I, 542 If you want to read a bit about early Islamic history of the 7th-8th centuries (even if you might not be into Islamic coins you might find some of this interesting): https://www.cointalk.com/threads/beware-of-weaponized-grapes.279057/#post-2427832 https://www.cointalk.com/threads/slowly-expanding-into-a-new-field.254279/#post-2006023 https://www.cointalk.com/threads/th...quisition-and-discussion.272659/#post-2310405 https://www.cointalk.com/threads/a-coin-of-one-of-the-great-islamic-empires.263138/#post-2141681 Please post your Arab-Byzantines and/or your multicultural coins!