Featured Sacrifice to JUPITER...or DIE !

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Ocatarinetabellatchitchix, Jan 2, 2021.

  1. Ocatarinetabellatchitchix

    Ocatarinetabellatchitchix Supporter! Supporter

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    January 3rd 250 AD
    Trajan Decius orders sacrifices to be performed by everyone in the Empire to Jupiter and to the well-being of the Emperor. Only Jews were exempted to do so. The sacrifices had to be performed in the presence of a Roman magistrate and be confirmed by a certificate, called a libellus, signed and attested by the magistrate. Even if the original text of the edict has been lost, many examples of certificates have survived.

    9146D7FF-C3C1-4F7B-99D8-8A989F084CD9.jpeg
    A Roman libellus, found in Egypt and dated to 250 AD. It confirmed its owner had sacrificed to the gods.

    The Edict of Decius was intended to serve as an Empire-wide oath of loyalty to the new emperor, sanctified by the Roman religion. There is no evidence that Decius sought to specifically target Christianity or initiate persecution of its practitioners. An unknown number of Christians have been executed or died in prison for refusing to perform the sacrifices, including Pope Fabian. Others hide, while many fall away and perform the ceremonies. The numbers of people put to death for refusing to obtain a certificate is a mystery. Emperor Decius died in June 251, causing his edict to lapse; it had been in force for approximately eighteen months.
    Talking about sacrifices to Jupiter, who is probably the most depicted god on Roman Imperial coinage, it is kind of weird that Decius did not issued any coins with the theme of the Jovian deity ! The only specimens I was able to find are Provincial example like this one minted in Caesarea Maritima and showing Jupiter seated and holding a thunderbolt and a sceptre on the reverse :

    36B2D539-B286-4246-84CF-5C7BF64DEFFF.jpeg
    RPC 2062 (British Museum)

    About 60 years ago, P.Hill made an interesting research untitled "Aspects of Jupiter on Coins of the Rome mint". It demonstrated that the vast majority of Emperors used this theme on their coinage, at least at the Rome workshop.

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    It would be fun and instructive if you can show us your coins of Decius or your specimen depicting the famous Jupiter !

    A few I didn't show for a while (or never?):

    Licinius II
    Jupiter
    holding victory and sceptre
    447E6518-FCA5-438F-8C91-6B8DF2AD80EE.jpeg

    Constantius I
    Jupiter
    giving globe to the Emperor
    A4D54092-1FF0-498A-9497-8BDAFC3BA951.jpeg

    Licinius I
    Jupiter
    holding victory on globe & sceptre
    CE36654B-443A-44DE-AB85-C64C2AB326B3.jpeg
     
    Last edited: Jan 3, 2021
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  3. dougsmit

    dougsmit Member Supporter

    Septimius Severus IOVI PRAE ORBIS is an "Emesa" mint denarius so it is not on Hill's Rome only list.
    rg3070bb1565.jpg
     
  4. JayAg47

    JayAg47 Well-Known Member

    A Jupiter from Commodus
    Iovi.jpg
    obv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT.
    rev: IOV EXSVP P M TR P XII IMP VIII / COS V P P.
    RIC 152
     
  5. Shea19

    Shea19 Supporter! Supporter

    Great write-up as usual.

    Here is a Decius ant from 250 AD:
    D1D1CDC0-7A3F-4BFD-99FE-9752543C2653.jpeg Trajan Decius, AR antoninianus (22 mm, 4.05 g). Rome, 250 AD, IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Trajan Decius r./ ADVENTVS AVG, emperor on horseback l. , extending arm in salute and holding scepter. RIC 11b

    And my favorite Jupiter holding a thunderbolt:
    EF5EB76D-1032-4AC2-AAEC-3B81CDF24226.jpeg
    Probus, Antoninianus (24 mm, 3.39 g), Rome, 282. Radiate and cuirassed bust r./ Rev.Jupiter standing front, head to l., holding thunderbolt in his r. hand and scepter in his l. RIC 175
     
  6. Ocatarinetabellatchitchix

    Ocatarinetabellatchitchix Supporter! Supporter

    Nice and rare one. And it's funny to see how Jupiter looks like Severus...
     
    LaCointessa, TIF and panzerman like this.
  7. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    All of my coins with a date of 250 are for 250 BCE !

    Here is one with Jupiter's bust and Jupiter's Capitolinus Temple

    upload_2021-1-2_18-31-43.png
    Roman Republic
    M. Volteius M.f..
    AR Denarius;
    78 BCE
    Sear 312, Cr-385/1, Syd-774
    Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter r.
    Rx: Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, M VOLTEI MF in exergue.
     
  8. panzerman

    panzerman Well-Known Member

    I have one with Jupiter standing "Butt naked";) 1c5c99880e5b2b53a85711f86c5a1074.jpg 678cc53cc4cd8e63057698ace260a8d3.jpg
     
  9. otlichnik

    otlichnik Well-Known Member

    Not a coin, but the statuette of Jupiter that is my avatar is one of most cherished items.

    SC

    Jupiter 1.jpg
     
  10. marchal steel

    marchal steel Member

    Mr. Chitchix-
    A most wonderful bit of history that one never reads much in a history book (well, I never did). It seems that not so much has changed regarding the human condition, just the ways we go about asserting control over others. The way of the world... I'm amazed actually that he let the Jewish people off the hook, and at the courage of Pope Fabian and untold other Christians who died for their faith and beliefs.
    Thanks again for the wonderful write-up!
     
  11. DonnaML

    DonnaML Supporter! Supporter

    I have no coins of Trajan Decius depicting Jupiter, but here are some of my other Roman Imperial coins showing him.

    Only the first is from Rome and is listed above.

    Nero AR denarius, 64-65 AD Rome Mint. Obv. Laureate head right, NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS / Rev. Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, IVPPITER CVSTOS. RIC I 52 [old RIC I 45], RSC II 119, BMCRE 74. 18 mm., 3.1 g. [The first type listed in the excerpt above from Hill's article.]

    Nero AR Denarius - IVPPITER CVSTOS jpg version.jpg

    Gallienus (son of Valerian I), Silvered Billon Antoninianus, 255-256 AD, Samasota Mint. Obv. Radiate, draped, & cuirassed bust right, IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG/ Rev. Gallienus stdg. right, holding spear/scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter standing facing left, holding scepter, wreath in upper center, IOVI CONSERVATORI. RIC V-1 440(j) [joint reign], RSC IV 379. 20 mm., 4.0 g.

    Gallienus Jupiter reverse.jpg

    Carus, silvered AE Antoninianus, late Autumn 282 [second son, Numerian, elevated to Caesar] to Autumn 283 AD [death of Carus], Antioch Mint (1st Officina). Obv. Radiate bust right, IMP C M AVR CARVS PF AVG/ Rev. VIRTUS AVGGG, Carus, standing right, receives Victory from Jupiter standing left, holding long scepter, star in upper field, A in lower middle field (= 1st Officina, Antioch Mint), XXI in exergue [20/1 copper/silver ratio of alloy]. RIC V-2 125(A), Sear RCV III 12190, ERIC II 141, Cohen 117. 20.25 mm., 3.59 g. [For the dating of Carus’s coins with AVGGG reverse (issued at Antioch mint only), see http://augustuscoins.com/ed/Carus.]

    Carus denarius jpg version.jpg
    Diocletian, AE Antoninianus, 293-294 AD, Antioch Mint (7th Officina). Obv. Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG / Rev. Jupiter stdg. left, holding long scepter, presents Victory on globe to Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM; Z in lower middle field (= 7th officina of Antioch mint), XXI in exergue. RIC VI 322 (p. 256), Sear RCV IV 12637, Cohen 34. 20.87 mm., 4.75 g.

    NEW COMBINED Diocletian Ant - Concordia.jpg

    Licinius I, silvered AE Follis, Siscia Mint (4th Officina) 315-316 AD. Obv. Laureate head right, IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG / Rev. Naked Jupiter standing and facing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe in right hand and leaning on scepter held in left hand; eagle with wreath in beak at his feet left, IOVI CON-SERVATORI. Δ [Delta] in right field, • SIS • in exergue. RIC VII Siscia 17 (p. 424), Sear RCV IV 15212, Cohen 66. 21 mm., 3.36 g.

    Licinius I - jpg version.jpg
     
  12. Limes

    Limes Supporter! Supporter

    Nice write up @Ocatarinetabellatchitchix, thanks!

    I really wonder how this practically took shape. I imagine the bureaucratic hassles accompanied with this edict...!

    That is really neat. What's the date?

    Here's a Caracalla antoninianus with Ze.... I mean Jupiter throned.

    30.2.png
     
  13. Pellinore

    Pellinore Supporter! Supporter

    Here are my three Decii. As you see, I'm more a Provincial man.

    3259 Decius ct.jpg

    AR tetradrachm Traianus Decius (249-251). 249, before the name ‘Trajan’ was added to Decius. Seleucis & Pieria / Antiochia. Obv.: AYTOK K ΓAI ME KYIN ΔEKKIOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; no pellets under bust. Rev.: ΔHMAPX ΕΞOYCIAC, eagle standing tail right, head left on palm, with wings spread, holding wreath in beak; SC in exergue. 28 mm, 12.27 gr.
    An early issue, where the emperor still was called Deccius (with two k's or c's), and not yet Traianus.

    3263 Trajanus D. ct.jpg

    AR tetradrachm Traianus Decius (249-251). 249-250. Seleucis & Pieria / Antiochia. Obv.: AYT K Γ ME KY ΔEKIOC TPAIANOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 4 pellets under bust (= officina). Rev.: ΔHMAPX ΕΞOYCIAC, eagle standing left on palm, with wings spread, holding wreath in beak; SC in exergue. 25 mm, 10.10 gr.

    3315 Zeus 209 Ciliciarch crown ct.jpg

    AE25 Tarsus in Cilicia. Traianus Decius, 249-251 AD. Obv.: Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Decius right. ΑΥ ΚƐ Γ ΜƐ ΚΥIN ΔƐΚΙ ΤΡΑΙAΝΟϹ. / Π / Π. Rev.: Demiourgos crown over altar or column; at r., crown of the Cilicarch decorated with six imperial busts and three Nikai. ΤΑΡϹΟΥ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛƐΩϹ, Α Μ Κ Γ Β. 25 mm, 10.84 gr.
     
  14. Lukem336

    Lukem336 New Member

    [​IMG]Apologies if this is a little off topic (I am new to the forum and the hobby as a whole), but I recently received a Licinius II coin, with Jupiter on the reverse as a gift which looks similar to the first coin listed in this thread.

    I believe the person who bought it for me purchased it off Ebay so I am a little skeptical about whether it is genuine or not. Does anyone have any thoughts or could provide any direction to help me with questions like this in future?

    I look forward to becoming part of the forum community in future and hope this is ok to post here.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
     
  15. Pellinore

    Pellinore Supporter! Supporter

    And it's always a pleasure getting this Jupiter coin out and re-reading the lengthy dicsussions about it being a RIC 167 or RIC 168 with some hot CoinTalk temperaments going on about "Good ol' J-dawg is walking right, not left".

    2579 Fulgeratori Stx pic.jpg

    (I borrowed Stevex6's picture). Diocletian 285-305, antoninianus (285-295). Obv. Radiate and cuirassed bust r. IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG. Rev. Jupiter standing facing, head right, preparing to hurl thunderbolt; at feet to the left, eagle standing left, head right; XXI Γ in exergue. IOVI FVLGERATORI. Reddish metal. 22 mm, 3.81 gr. RIC 167 or 168.
     
  16. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    Ocat, Another interesting article :D! Pictured below is my favorite coin of Jupiter :happy:.

    Alexandria follis, Gal. rev (3).jpg 3807482-003 insert.jpg Alexandria follis, Gal. (3).jpg
     
  17. zumbly

    zumbly Ha'ina 'ia mai ana ka puana Supporter

    I suspect the only reason the deity here is named Jupiter rather than Zeus is that RPC has adopted the convention, at least in this particular volume, of calling gods by their Roman names whenever a particular provincial mint had colony status and used Latin legends. In a city striking for Decius that used Greek legends, Jupiter would simply be Zeus. That said, no Jupiter from the Rome mint? Surely an unforgivable omission!

    Trajan Decius - Double Sestertius Felicitas new 3725.jpg
    TRAJAN DECIUS
    AE Double Sestertius. 32.59g, 36.1mm. Rome mint, AD 250. RIC IV 115a; Cohen 39; Banti 9. O: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. R: FELICITAS SAECVLI, Felicitas standing to left holding long caduceus and cornucopia; S-C across field.
    Ex Dr C. Haymes Collection; ex Bruce R. Brace Collection (CNG 90, 23 May 2012, lot 1678)

    Titus - AR Cistophorus Capitoline Temple 4131.JPG
    TITUS
    AR Cistophorus. 10.77g, 26.5mm. Rome mint (for circulation in Asia), AD 80-81. RIC II.1 515; RPC II 860. O: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; laureate head right. R: Tetrastyle Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, enclosing figures of Juno, Jupiter seated, and Minerva; in pediment, two anguiped giants holding large facing bust placed on a base, atop pediment, facing quadriga in center between facing bigas at corners; CAPIT across field, RESTIT in exergue.
    Ex Stein A. Evensen Collection; ex Harry N. Sneh (“Sierra”) Collection (CNG 88, 14 September 2011), lot 1298; ex CNG E-Auction 125 (26 October 2005), lot 222
     
  18. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Too many Jupiters to post, but here are a few.

    Licinius II was about two when this one was issued:

    [​IMG]
    Licinius II, Caesar, AD 317-324.
    Roman Æ follis, 3.36 g, 17.55 mm, 5 h.
    Antioch, AD 317-318.
    Obv: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, laureate bust, left, holding mappa in the right hand and globe and scepter in left.
    Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe; resting on scepter; at left, captive. SMANT in exergue, H in field, right.
    Refs: RIC 29; RCV 15415.

    Another IOVI CONSERVATORI issued by his dad:

    [​IMG]
    Licinius I, AD 308-324.
    Roman billon follis, 3.43 g, 19.1 mm, 11 h.
    Antioch, sixth officina, AD 321-323.
    Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped scepter, another eagle to feet to left, captive seated on ground to right; X/IIΓ in field, right; SMANTS in exergue.
    Refs: RIC vii, p. 682, 35; Cohen 74; RCV 15225.

    Yet another CONSERVATORI by Constantine I:

    [​IMG]
    Constantine I, AD 307-337.
    Roman billion follis, 3.56 g, 23.6 mm, 6 h.
    Thessalonica, AD 312-13.
    Obv: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter, chlamys draped over left shoulder, standing front, head left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and leaning on scepter with left hand; at feet to left, eagle holding wreath in beak; -/-//•TS•Є•.
    Refs: RIC vi, p. 519, 61b; Cohen 310; RCV 15972.


    Here's a IOVI STATORI of Gordy:

    [​IMG]
    Gordian III, AD 238-244.
    Roman AR antoninianus, 3.62 g, 21.6 mm, 5 h.
    Rome mint, 2nd officina, 3rd emission, AD 241-243.
    Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: IOVI STATORI, Jupiter standing facing, head right, holding scepter and thunderbolt.
    Refs: RIC 84; Cohen 109; RCV 8615; Hunter 51.

    Baby Jupiter (IOVI CRESCENTI):

    [​IMG]
    Valerian II, Caesar AD 256-258.
    Roman billon antoninianus, 3.14 g, 22.5 mm, 5 h.
    Cologne, AD 257-258.
    Obv: VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust, right.
    Rev: IOVI CRESCENTI, infant Jupiter seated facing on goat standing right, his right hand raised.
    Refs: RIC 3; Göbl 907e; Cohen 26; RCV 10731; Hunter 9.


    IOVI VLTORI on a couple of antoniniani from Gallienus that were not manufactured with the highest attention to artistry.

    [​IMG]
    Gallienus, AD 253-268.
    Roman billon antoninianus, 3.10 g, 20.1 mm, 6 h.
    Rome, AD 261.
    Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: IOVI VLTORI, Jupiter standing, head right, holding lightning bolt in right hand, cloak flying right; S in left field.
    Refs: RIC 220F; Göbl 383x; RCV 10247; Cohen 404 var.

    [​IMG]
    Gallienus, AD 253-268.
    Roman billon antoninianus, 3.10 g, 20.1 mm, 6 h.
    Rome, AD 261.
    Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head, right, both ribbons behind.
    Rev: IOVI VLTORI, Jupiter standing, head right, holding lightning bolt in right hand, cloak flying right; S in left field.
    Refs: RIC 221K; Göbl 348e; RCV 10247 var.; Cohen 402.
     
  19. Alwin

    Alwin Supporter! Supporter

    681.jpg
    LICINIUS I, Follis
    AQS, Aquilea
    3.81 g - 21 mm
    S 15203 - C 83 - RIC VII 7
    IMP LICINIVS PF AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right
    IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, sceptre in left hand, thunderbolt in right
     
  20. ancient coin hunter

    ancient coin hunter I dig ancient coins...

    Zeus, e.g. Jupiter

    Mint of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Commodus (180-192. A.D.)

    Type: Billon Tetradrachm, 25mm, 11.06 grams

    Obverse: M AVΡ KOMMO ANTΩNINOC CE, Laureate bust of Commodus right

    Reverse: VΠAT OCTOΔ, Zeus seated left, holding scepter and thunderbolt, K theta in field

    Reference: Emmett 2567

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]
     
  21. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    Here is JUPITER saying: "Let's get RID of those Tyrants!"

    upload_2021-1-3_9-42-18.png
    RI
    Civil War Revolt of Vindex
    CE 68-69 AR Denarius
    ROMA RESTITVTA -
    IVPITER LIBERATOR Jupiter seated r Tbolt Scepter
    17mm 3.02g
    RIC I 62 RSC 374-RARE
     
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