here) and Nogent-le-Roi (and its 11th century coinage, which can be read here), here is another obscure autonomous realm of middle medieval France. Saint Aignan, Celles-sur-Cher, Vierzon, Gien in Berry. The castle and territory of Saint Aignan was awarded by Odo II (Eudes) of Blois as Count of Champagne to his vassal Geoffroi de Donzy sometime around 1000/1010 to become his fief and power base in Berry. Geoffroi, who started the Maison de Donzy, involved himself in the Blois-Normandy war of 1008-14 and was eventually murdered as a result of the conflict between Blois and Anjou, after being captured by Fulk III Nerra of Anjou around 1037. His descendants are mentioned in Histoire de Berry, but barely. Under their rule in the 11th and 12th century, the lordships of Saint Aignan and Gien became powerful enough to allow a scion of Donzy to ultimately accede to the County of Nevers and be invited to participate in the Albigensian campaigns. Also, during the early period, in 11th-12th centuries, the medieval fortress -- of which parts are still visible today -- was built to protect the mint, baronial hall and secretariat. Tour Hagar and the fortifications built in the 11th century. At the same time, during this early formation period, the church Collegiale de Saint Aignan was built and used to house the tombs of the Donzys in its crypt. According to Histoire de Berry, it is the final resting place of Geoffroi I, after his body was returned from Angevin captivity in Loches or Amboise. L'eglise collegiale Saint Aignan, with its apse and the naves of the transept built in the early Romanesque phase of the church. And its interior crypt with a fresco painted at the end of the 11th century. The coinage of Saint Aignan is completely anonymous and rather scarce if not downright rare. It starts possibly in the first half of the 11th century with grand deniers of chinonaise or bleso-chartraine design, which gradually decrease in diameter and weight in parallel with the prototypes of Blois and Chartres in the 12th century. The change from this generic type to a new and very interesting billon issue struck to a lower diameter and weight (perhaps to the standard of the Angevin deniers of Fulk V and their imitations started by Geoffroi II or III at Gien) came around 1160, under the rule of Herve III. The new denier of Saint Aignan, issued anonymous under the rule of Herve III, starting around 1160: + SANCTI ANIAI (S couchee); cross pattee with pellets in all 4 quarters + CAS - . T . - RVM (S couchee); castle with cross above, resting on two spikes which cross into the legend field at 5 and 7 o'clock. Boudeau 322, Poey d'Avant 2054 Pl. XLIV 24, Duplessy 610 Herve III de Donzy is one of those feudal lords known more through the coinage that is assigned to his rule -- the immobilized deniers of Gien continued very likely throughout the rule of Herve III and the anonymous deniers of Saint Aignan -- than anything else. For instance Histoire de Berry just passingly mentions him, and it even confuses him with his son Herve IV, who ruled as Sire de Donzy (after 1187) and as Count of Nevers (after 1199). His reign is remarkably uneventful as far as literary sources go, thus very similar to other lordships in Berry in the second half of the 12th century, like that of Robert de Celles-sur-Cher or Herve I de Vierzon. The paragraph in Histoire de Berry which mentions Herve III but confuses him with his son Herve IV. Three of his sons did however go crusading: 1. Guillaume, his heir as Sire de Gien died in the Third Crusade at Acre in 1191 2. Reynald(?)/Bernard, Sire de Montmirail, was part of the host of Louis de Blois and died in the Battle of Adrianople in 1205, following the conquest of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, together with his liege lord Louis. 3. Herve IV, Sire of Donzy (and Saint Aignan) and Count of Nevers, took part in the Albigensian Crusade in 1208/9 at Beziers and Carcassonne as required by his feudal duty towards Pierre de Courtenai, his liege lord. The coinage assigned to Herve III at the chateau of Saint Aignan is scarce and extremely interesting. The design of the reverse -- the "castle" or "cathedral" surmounted by the cross -- is inspired by both the earlier carolingian "temple deniers" and the "chateau" deniers of Saint Martin de Tours and of Fulk of Anjou (1109-1129), a type that would become in the early 1200s the royal denier tournois. Spikes like the ones piercing the field and separating the reverse legend are seen, in smaller dimensions, on the deniers of Jerusalem from the 1140s and 1150s (under Baldwin III) and are probably there to suggest the strong foundations of either the chateau de Saint Aignan or Herve's own roots as Sire of Berry, or very likely, both. As a stylistic and calligraphic detail, the S couchee on both obverse and reverse is also a feature most common on the baronial and royal coinages of the second half of the 12th century. Unlike Vierzon, the local coinage of Saint Aignan stops around 1190.