The beginning of feudalism in France: Seigneurie de Nogent-le-Roi

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by seth77, Jun 14, 2019.

  1. seth77

    seth77 Well-Known Member

    Seigneurie de Nogent-le-Roi entered the possession of Hugo de Beauvais during the reign of Hugo Capet and was inherited by Roger at the death of Hugo in 1008.

    It remained in this branch of the family Beauvais-Blois until the death of Roger in 1022. Nogent was a seigneurie tied to the County of Dreux, and the rights of Roger to Nogent and Beauvais were acknowledged by Eudes II de Blois and the French King in 1014, after the conflict (1008-1014) between Richard II of Normandy and Eudes II de Blois for the county and castle of Dreux was concluded.


    roger de beauvais1.jpg
    AR22mm, 1.01g, silver grand denier, minted at Chateau Nogent, cca. 1015-1020.
    + ROGERIVS EPIS; Facade of a towered church.
    + NVIGENTI CAS; cross.
    Boudeau 1var, p. 3 (NVIGENTI instead of NVICENTE/NVICETE), not in Poey d'Avant.



    In 1015 the Bishop of Beauvais became also Count of Beauvais and Lord of Nogent and was also rose to Peer of France (Léon-Honoré Labande; Honoré Lambert Labande (1892). Histoire de Beauvais et de ses institutions communales jusqu'au commencement du XVe siècle. Paris: Imprimerie nationale. pp. 25–40).

    The Bishopric was united with the County of Beauvais, so Roger ruled as both Bishop and Count of Beauvais and Lord of Nogent until his death in 1022.

    A very detailed insight into the history of Dreux, Beauvais and Nogent and the Blois family during the second half of the 10th century to the first half of the 11th century can be read here.

    It is possible that the coinage of Roger began in 1015, although he had been titular Lord of Nogent since the death of Hugo II de Beauvais in 1008. He managed to take actual possession of his domains and have his claims recognized in Dreux after a long process that ended in 1014, while his power and prestige reached their zenith in 1015, which is possibly when the coinage of Nogent-le-Roi starts.

    His coinage as Seigneur de Nogent is rather scarce.
     
    Last edited: Jun 14, 2019
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  3. seth77

    seth77 Well-Known Member

    Reviving this to add an entry about another coin from this series, this time minted at Dreux-Chateau for Hugo Bardoul, a rather scarcely recorded figure who ruled both Dreux and Nogent between cca. 1028/1035 and 1044/1055.

    bardoul.jpg
    Specs:
    AR22mm 1.27g grand denier, minted at Dreux-Chateau, cca. 1028-1035(?)
    + HVGO C -- OMITI; Facade with porticoes of a towered Romanesque church
    + DRVCAS CASTA; cross pattee with thin arms.
    Boudeau 2, Poey d'Avant 89, Duplessy 420.



    The death of Roger de Beauvais in 1022 turned the lands of Dreux to Eudes II de Blois again and in 1023 they were confiscated by Robert of France and attached to the Royal demesne. While Seigneurie de Nogent-le-Roi was passed down to the descendents of Roger -- Odolric (1022-1028), Isembart (1028-1035) and finally Hugo Bardoul (1035-1044/1055), the castle at Dreux has a more obscure history. While the title of "Count of Dreux" did not officially appear again after 1023 until 1137, when Robert de France received the County of Dreux as appanage from his brother, Louis VII of France, the actual castle was ruled by local and/or Beauvais-Blois-Broyes related sires. One of them is Hugo Bardoul, who was Sire of Dreux-Chateau after 1028 to around 1044 or 1055(?), of which we don't really know very much, besides the fact that he minted coins (grand deniers) naming him "Comes" or Count of Dreux and Nogent-le-Roi. This title was likely for local propaganda use. As usual for the fragmentation at the end of the Carolingians and the beginning of the Robertines and the Capetians, the minting of local independent coinage was well-spread and accepted as fait accompli by the Kings of the Francs.

    The grand deniers of Dreux-Chateau and Nogent-le-Roi were such feudal coins, issued by the sires as signs of their independence and authority, beyond that of the french king. This series ended before the middle of the 11th century, and with it the independence of the local barons and of their seigneuries of Nogent-le-Roi and Dreux. Very likely the feudal structure involving the Beauvais-Blois-Broyes endured in place, enjoying the privileges of lordship, but also acknowledging the overlordship of the king.

    s-l1000.jpg
    The remains of the fortifications which were in place during Roger to Hugo Bardoul, after the war for Dreux between the Blois faction and Richard II of Normandie, cca. 1008-1014, as they stood in the early 20th century.

    Isabelle de Broyes, Hugo's daughter, is mentioned as "dominam de Novigento" and married into the Montfort family to Simon, sire of "Montifortem et Sparnomum" in the 1050s, as noted by a confirmation charter of 1160 by King Louis VII of France, who confirmed the donativa made to the Abbey of Coulombs near Nogent by both the Simon-Isabelle couple and her father: "Hugo Bardulfus et Simon de Monteforti gener eius et successor."

    18505.jpg
    The remains of the outer wall and an entry gate to the abbaye Coulombs, an abbey near Nogent-le-Roi, which was rather important to the Beauvais-Broyes of the mid 11th century. A distinct possibility is that the Romanesque towered and porticoed church portrayed on the Nogent-Dreux coinage of 1015-1035(?) was inspired by the contemporary church of Coulombs.

    Like the coinage of Nogent, the coinage of Dreux in this period is scarce at best, as the series was short-lived, being minted at both locations off and on for around 20 years or so, before disappearing.
     
    Last edited: Nov 4, 2019
  4. Mat

    Mat Ancient Coincoholic

    Nice writeups & coins, Seth.
     
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