An incestuous tale, told in denarii: Post YOUR favorite Antonines! Here's the Antonine family tree. This particular image is taken from a larger one that highlights the Augusti in pink. At the center of all of this is Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius, AR denarius, Rome, AD 169. BMCRE 492. His biological father, M. Annius Verus, had a sister, Faustina I. Faustina I, AR denarius, Rome, AD 141. BMCRE 311-314 var. (veiled bust). Therefore, Faustina I was Marcus Aurelius's biological AUNT. Faustina I was married to Antoninus Pius. Antoninus Pius, AR denarius, Rome, AD 152-153. BMCRE 786-88. This made Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius's UNCLE by marriage. Faustina I and Antoninus Pius had two children, only one of which survived to adulthood, their daughter, Faustina II. Faustina II, AR Denarius, Rome, AD 150-152, under Antoninus Pius. BMCRE 1078 note (Pius). This made Faustina II Marcus Aurelius's biological COUSIN. But when Hadrian's chosen successor, Aelius, died in AD 138, Hadrian chose Antoninus Pius to be his successor, on the condition that he adopt his wife Sabina's cousin twice-removed, Marcus Aurelius, along with Aelius's son, Lucius Verus, who was to marry Antoninus's daughter, Faustina II. Antoninius agreed and adopted Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, to whom was betrothed Faustina II. Lucius Verus, AR Denarius, Rome, AD 168. BMCRE 477. This made Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius's STEP-FATHER, Faustina I his STEP-MOTHER, and Faustina II his STEP-SISTER, and Lucius Verus his STEP-BROTHER and future step-brother-in-law. But when Hadrian died some six or seven months later, Antoninus Pius decided that Lucius Verus was too young to marry his daughter (he was seven years old at the time), Faustina II, and married her to Marcus Aurelius instead. This made Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius's FATHER-IN-LAW, Faustina I his MOTHER-IN-LAW, and Faustina II his WIFE. Now, Marcus Aurelius and Faustina II had many children, the oldest of which to survive to adulthood was Lucilla. Lucilla, AR denarius, Rome, AD 164-166. BMCRE 325-326. This made Marcus Aurelius Lucilla's FATHER and FIRST COUSIN ONCE-REMOVED. To compensate for the loss of Faustina II as a wife some twenty years previously, Marcus Aurelius betrothed his daughter to Lucius Verus. This made Marcus Aurelius Lucius Verus's FATHER-IN-LAW. Got it? No? Let us recapitulate: - Faustina I was Marcus Aurelius's biological aunt, step-mother, and mother-in-law. - Antoninus Pius was Marcus Aurelius's uncle by marriage, step-father, and father-in-law. - Faustina II was Marcus Aurelius's biological cousin, step-sister, and wife. - Lucius Verus was Marcus Aurelius's step-brother and son-in-law. - Lucilla was Marcus Aurelius's daughter and biological first cousin once-removed. That's what you call KEEPING IT IN THE FAMILY.