Featured VIMINACIUM the city

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Ocatarinetabellatchitchix, Jun 12, 2021.

  1. Ocatarinetabellatchitchix

    Ocatarinetabellatchitchix Supporter! Supporter

    Summer of 285 AD. Viminacium in Moesia. Two armies face to face; Diocletian and Carinus will fight on the banks of the river Margus for victory and domination of the Roman world. We all know the issue of this battle, but what do we know about the city where it took place ?

    348F9BC7-08C0-430E-A76F-9A4BFEF8596A.jpeg

    The city, Viminacium, has grown in importance under the reign of Vespasian, and was under an intense activity during the Dacic wars of Trajan (101-107 AD). Then during the second century, it became a provincial capital before finding itself at the forefront of the Danubian limes from the Marcomanic wars and the great invasions of the 3rd century. Viminacium, the capital of Lower Moesia then of Moesia Superior in the 4th century, had been the cantonment of the 7th Legio Claudia Pia Fidelis, this from the 1st century AD. The city was elevated to the rank of colony under Gordian III in 239 AD and a coinage of Latin language was struck there until 255. For sixteen years (Year I to XVI) a particularly well dated coinage was manufactured there including three types of bronzes: a large bronze, corresponding to the Sestertius with a weight average 17g started from 10 to 13g from year XI, a medium bronze with the radiate crown, corresponding to the Dupondius with an average weight of 6g and finally a small bronze with the laureate head of the As type with an average weight of 4g.

    Philip I Year VII
    1213B6C7-01BD-497A-BE6D-0AECCAA7D071.jpeg

    Trajan Decius Year XI
    7984E5CB-A1D8-4175-94CE-AAD2EECBB7B9.jpeg

    Hostilian Year XII
    D1DF8C7A-922F-4A2B-B5DB-9A943BDF0E2E.jpeg

    Trebonianus Gallus Year XIII
    4279DE24-E716-4A5B-8E3A-178B03A9272D.jpeg


    The coinage presents, on the reverse, the province rather than the city (Viminacium), Moesia between the symbols of the VIIth Legio Claudia (a bull) confined to Viminacium and the IVth Legio Flavia (symbol the lion), stationed in Singidunum (Belgrade). The reverse legend PMS COL VIM is for Provinci Moesi Superioris Colonia Viminacium. This coinage was produced in large quantity to make up for the missing coins, in particular the bronze coins for daily payments. Viminacium was even to become an imperial workshop from the reigns of Valerian I and Gallienus or rather under Aemilian. In the center of the Roman defense, Viminacium was finally wiped out by the king of the Huns, Attila, in 441 AD. The city was never rebuilt.

    [​IMG]
    A mother and her children who died in the plague, burried together in the nooble part of a Viminacium grave.

    Modern excavations at Viminacium began as early as 1976 and intensified twenty years later, starting in 1996, culminating in 2002. More than fourteen thousand tombs have been excavated on the necropolis and more than 40,000 objects have been brought to light, including more than 700 in gold and silver. Nothing having been reconstructed on the ruins of the Roman city, the site is intact and now protected. Until now, only 5% of the city has been explored... so certainly many interesting discoveries to come in the future.


    [​IMG]
    Ruins of Thermae at Viminacium

    Please search your collections and show us your coins of Viminacium. I'm curious to see how many different Emperors and how many years we can cover !
     
    Last edited: Jun 12, 2021
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  3. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Fascinating, @Ocatarinetabellatchitchix! I was unaware of the current archaeological work being done at the site! I have a few from the city:

    Year 4:

    [​IMG]
    Gordian III, AD 238-244.
    Roman provincial Æ 21.6 mm, 7.85 g, 1h.
    Moesia Superior, Viminacium, AD 242/3.
    Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
    Rev: P M S C-OL VIM, Moesia standing facing, head left, extending hands to bull and lion standing at her feet on either side, AN IIII (year 4 = AD 242/3) in exergue.
    Refs: H&J, Viminacium, 15; AMNG I 84; Varbanov 119; BMC --.

    Year 5:

    [​IMG]
    Philip I, AD 244-249.
    Roman provincial Æ 28.1 mm, 17.65 g, 1 h.
    Moesia Superior, Viminacium, AD 244.
    Obv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: P M S COL VIM, Moesia standing left between bull standing right and lion left; in exergue: AN V (= year 5 of the Colonial Era of Viminacium = AD 244).
    Ref: BMC 3.16,18; AMNG 100.

    Year 11:

    [​IMG]
    Herennia Etruscilla, AD 249-253.
    Roman provincial Æ, 12.67 g, 27.45 mm, 7 h.
    Moesia Superior, Viminacium, AD 249-250.
    Obv: HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: P M S COL VIM, Moesia standing left between bull and lion; ANXI (year 11 = 249/50) in exergue.
    Refs: SGI 4220 var.; BMC 3.18, 32 var.; Pick 136; Moushmov 48.

    Year 13:

    [​IMG]
    Trebonianus Gallus, AD 251-253.
    Roman provincial Æ 26.2 mm, 10.80 g, 12 h.
    Moesia Superior, Viminacium, AD 251/2.
    Obv: IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: P M S COL VIM, AN XIII; Moesia standing left; at left, bull standing right; at right, lion standing left.
    Refs: RPC IX, 58; AMNG I.1, 163; BMC 41; Moushmov 56; SNG Hungary 509; Wiczay 2099.
     
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  4. Shea19

    Shea19 Supporter! Supporter

    Great post and photos! Here’s my only coin from Viminacium:

    F567A76F-32A1-4762-9FC8-29481A4BF396.jpeg
    Hostilian, as Caesar, Moesia Superior, Viminacium, (AE 26.5mm, 12.50 g). Dated CY 12 (251 AD). Bareheaded, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Moesia standing facing, head left; bull standing right; lion standing left; AN XII (date) in exergue. RPC IX 37
     
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  5. Ocatarinetabellatchitchix

    Ocatarinetabellatchitchix Supporter! Supporter

    Same year and Emperor as mine, but with a different obverse legend :
    IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
     
  6. DonnaML

    DonnaML Supporter! Supporter

    All I have is this Imperial coin of Valerian I, formerly identified as minted in Mediolanum and more recently ascribed to Viminacium:

    Valerian I, Silvered Billon Antoninianus, 257 AD [Göbl: 253/254 AD], Mediolanum [Milan] Mint [RIC, RSC] or Viminacium Mint [Sear, Göbl] [Viminacium was the capital of Moesia Superior and was located in what is now Eastern Serbia near Kostolac.]. Obv. Radiate, draped bust right, IMP VALERIANVS P AVG/ Rev. Virtus standing left, chiton off right shoulder (leaving right breast bare), holding Victory with right hand and resting left hand on shield, with reversed spear propped against left arm, VIRTVS AVGG. RIC V-1 267 (Milan) (p. 58) obv. leg. var. [RIC identifies reverse figure as a soldier; Wildwinds identifies reverse figure on RIC 267 as Virtus (see http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/valerian_I/i.html)]; Cohen 258 obv. leg. var. [Cohen identifies figure as Virtus or Roma], RSC IV 258 (Milan) obv. leg. var. [identifying reverse figure as soldier]; Sear RCV III 9992 obv. leg.var. [identifying reverse figure as Virtus, but characterizing Virtus as male; ascribed to Viminacium Mint for unstated reasons] (ill.); Göbl 811d (same obv. leg.) [identifying reverse figure as Virtus; Viminacium mint] [R. Göbl et al., Moneta Imperii Romani, Band 35: Die Münzprägung des Kaiser Valerianus I / Gallienus / Saloninus / (253/268), Regalianus (260) und Macrianus / Quietus (260/262) (Vienna, 2000)]. 22.5 mm., 3.4 g. [Footnote omitted.]

    Valerian I - Virtus AVGG - jpg version.jpg

    I also have an Imperial coin of his deceased wife Mariniana, variously identified as being from Viminacium and Rome.

    Mariniana (deceased wife of Valerian I), Silvered Billon Antoninianus. 254-258 AD, Viminacium [Rome?] Mint. Obv. DIVAE MARINIANAE, Veiled and draped bust right on crescent/ Rev. CONSECRATIO, Peacock standing, head right, tail in splendor. RSC IV 4, RIC V-1 4, Sear RCV III 10068. 21.5 mm., 3.9 g.

    COMBINED Diva Mariniana.jpg
     
    Last edited: Jun 12, 2021
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  7. Severus Alexander

    Severus Alexander Blame my mother. Supporter

    Would be great to visit those ruins! You mentioned the striking of Imperial issues under Valerian and Gallienus... here's a 1st issue for Valerian. Note the dative form of the emperor's name, "VALERIANO":
    valerian viminacium.JPG
    RIC 240

    RIC assigned these to Milan, they've since been reassigned to Viminacium. Last I heard, anyway...
     
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  8. DonnaML

    DonnaML Supporter! Supporter

    That's true of my Valerian, even though his name is spelled as plain old Valerianvs. See above. He looks about 15 years older on my coin than on yours.
     
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  9. hotwheelsearl

    hotwheelsearl Well-Known Member

    Awesome writeup!!!

    I like the large Vim "sestertii" as they represent some of the most affordable ways to get large Roman bronzes.

    Gordian III:
    $13
    Year III
    Gordian III AMNG 82 (2020_11_18 03_38_31 UTC).JPG

    $12
    Year V
    Gordian III Moushmov 34.JPG

    Trebonianus Gallus:
    $7
    Year XIII
    Trebonianus Gallus Vimanacium AMNG 165 (2020_11_18 03_38_31 UTC).JPG

    Philip II:
    $10
    Year V
    Philip I AMNG 100.JPG

    Trajan Decius:
    $3
    Year XII
    Trajan Decius AE Sestertius Moushmov 44.JPG

    The Dacia coins look virtually identical and are just as affordable:

    Trajan Decius:
    $5
    Year IIII
    Trajan Decius AE27 Moushmov Dacia 10 (2020_11_18 03_38_31 UTC).JPG


    Philip II:
    $1
    Year ?
    Philip II Dacia.JPG
     
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  10. wittwolf

    wittwolf Well-Known Member

    The "pompeii of serbia" well except the fact that Viminacium minted a nice bunch of awesome coins ;)
    Here my best example with a nice imperial portrait:
    Emperor Philippus I. - Sesterce - Year VII
    Phillipp.png
     
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  11. Andres2

    Andres2 Well-Known Member

  12. galba68

    galba68 Well-Known Member

     
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  13. Ocatarinetabellatchitchix

    Ocatarinetabellatchitchix Supporter! Supporter

    Wonderful video @galba68 . Thanks for sharing. I've got to visit this place one day. Would you meet me there Galba ? You're a lot closer than me...and do not forget to bring your MD...
     
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  14. gogili1977

    gogili1977 Well-Known Member

    Gordian sestertius AN III
    image.jpg
    Gordian dupondius AN IIII
    image(1).jpg
    Gordian as AN II
    image(2).jpg
    Philip II sestertius AN VI
    image(3).jpg
    Philip I sestertius AN VIIII
    image(4).jpg
    Herennius Etruscus sestertius AN XII
    image(5).jpg
    Volusian sestertius AN XIII
    image(6).jpg
     
  15. galba68

    galba68 Well-Known Member

    My Md Viminacium find...Diva Mariniana..
    upload_2021-6-13_14-18-12.jpeg
    upload_2021-6-13_14-18-33.jpeg
     
  16. gsimonel

    gsimonel Supporter! Supporter

    One of the nice thing about Viminacium coins is that you can sometimes find emperors that are harder to track down on regular Roman issues, like the first two coins below. I found all these coins in uncleaned lots many years ago (and they look it).
    Hostilian.jpg
    Hostilian
    Caesar, A.D. 250(?)-251
    Augustus, A.D. 251

    Provincial Bronze (AE26)
    Moesia Superior, Viminacium
    Obv: C VAL HOST M QVINTVS C
    Rev: P M S COL VIM - Moesia, standing between bull and lion
    AN XII in exergue
    Moushmov 55
    25x27mm, 12.2g.

    Aemilian.JPG
    Aemilian
    Augustus, A.D. 253
    Provincial Bronze (AE25)

    Moesia Superior, Viminacium
    Obv: IMP C M AEMIL ACHILIANVS
    Rev: P M S COL VIM P Meosia, standing between bull and lion
    AN X[IV?] in exergue
    Moushmov 61
    25 mm, 9.1g.

    And one slightly more presentable, of a common emperor:
    PhilipI.JPG
    Philip I ("the Arab")
    Augustus, A.D. 244-249
    Provincial Bronze (AE29)
    Moesia Superior, Viminacium, A.D. 247-248
    Obv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
    Rev: P M S C-OL VIM - Moesia standing between bull and lion
    ANVIIII in exergue
    Varbonov 138
    29mm, 14.3g.
     
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  17. Bing

    Bing Illegitimi non carborundum Supporter

    Gordian III 9.jpg
    GORDIAN III
    AE30
    OBVERSE: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the backt
    REVERSE: PMSC OLVIM City goddess standing left between bull & lion; AN IIII in ex
    Struck at Viminacium, Dated year 4=242 AD
    17.2g, 30mm
    AMNG 83
     
  18. ancient coin hunter

    ancient coin hunter 3rd Century Usurper

    Gordian sestertius:

    gordian1.jpg

    gordian2.jpg

    Herennia Etruscilla sestertius:

    etruscilla1.jpg

    etruscilla2.jpg
     
  19. Julius Germanicus

    Julius Germanicus Well-Known Member

    From 2014 and 2018 there were press releases claiming that the mausoleum of the emperor Hostilian had been discovered at Viminacium and even that a DNA analysis was to be carried out with the remains.
    I have heard of no updates since then, so this might have been a hypothesis too far-fetched (as far as I know most historians agree that Hostilian most likely died at Rome during the plague of 251 a.D..
    Has anyone here heard more about this?
     
  20. hotwheelsearl

    hotwheelsearl Well-Known Member

    Don’t see any reports later than 2018. My bet is it was proved to not be the emperors tomb and was promptly forgotten about instead of reported
     
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  21. Valentinian

    Valentinian Supporter! Supporter

    Here is a Gordian III of year IIII = 242/3 struck at Viminacium.

    GordianIII5ViminaciumLegions9533.jpg

    28 mm. 21.24 grams.
    PMS COL VIM
    Female figure holding inscribed vexilla
    bull on left, standard with VII
    lion on right, standard with IIII
    AN IIII below.
    Legions IIII Flavia and VII Claudia Pia Fidelis
    Ex Berk auction 85 (March 1995), lot 542.

    The bull and lion are usual on types of Viminacium. The numbered standards are not.
     
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