The year their eldest son, Valerian II (P Cornelius Licinius Valerianus), was born is not known with certainty; a date of AD 240 is a reasonable guess. Perhaps at the instigation of his grandfather, Valerian I, the younger Valerian was accorded the title Caesar shortly after Gallienus' elevation to the role of joint emperor with Valerian I, probably some time in AD 255 and no later than AD 256. Valerian I and Gallienus soon issued coins in the boy's name with the idea of establishing an imperial dynasty extending to a third generation, something not seen in the Roman world since Commodus wore the purple. The most obvious allusion to this is the reverse type IOVI CRESCENTI ("the growing Jupiter"), which depicts Valerian II as the infant Jupiter riding on the back of the goat Amalthea. The younger Valerian would have been a teenager -- 15 or 16 -- at the time he first appeared on coinage. He is depicted as a youth, typically beardless, though sometimes he is depicted with stubble-like sideburns or a faint beard along the jaw line. Interestingly, he sometimes is depicted with a long lock of hair falling behind his ear. Vagi notes that some have speculated this may have been intended to equate him with the Egyptian god, Horus, and thus with the renewal of time. Unfortunately the young Caesar was murdered some time around AD 257, possibly at the hands of his protector, Ingenuus. After his death, there followed a series of commemorative issues with obverse legends reading DIVO VALERIANO CAES and reverse legends CONSECRATIO and depicting and eagle, a funeral pyre, or an altar. Valerian II, Caesar AD 256-258. Roman billon antoninianus, 3.14 g, 22.5 mm, 5 h. Cologne, AD 257-258. Obv: VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust, right. Rev: IOVI CRESCENTI, infant Jupiter seated facing on goat standing right, his right hand raised. Refs: RIC 3; Göbl 907e; Cohen 26; RCV 10731; Hunter 9. ~~~ Gallienus's younger son, Saloninus (P Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus), was born around the year 242. After Valerian II's death in AD 258, Gallienus raised Saloninus to the rank of Caesar. Again, this may have been at the instigation of Valerian I. Gallienus and Valerian similarly issued coins in his name until AD 260, when Saloninus perished in the revolt of Postumus in Gaul, having been raised to the rank of Augustus only a few weeks previously, at the age of 17. Coins issued for Saloninus as Augustus are extremely rare, with perhaps fewer than 20 specimens known. Posthumous commemorative coins are similarly rare, being limited to a single issue with the reverse legend CONSECRATIO but lacking the title DIVO in the obverse legend. Vagi speculates that Gallienus perhaps thought it unwise to advertise the crisis that had befallen the family in AD 260, for his father had been captured by the Persians and Saloninus had been executed under shameful circumstances. Saloninus, Caesar AD 258-260. Roman billon antoninianus, 2.39 g, 22.2 mm, 12 h. Cologne, AD 258-260. Obv: SALON VALERIANVS CAES, radiate and draped bust, right. Rev: PIETAS AVG, lituus, jug, simpulum and sprinkler. Refs: RIC 9; Göbl 914e; Cohen 41; RCV 10767; Cunetio 744; Hunter 8. NOTE: Some of the types struck in the name of Valerian II have erroneously been assigned by the authors of older references to Saloninus. Such references, like Cohen, should be used cautiously. Inclusion of SAL or SALON in the inscription is a certain indicator that the coinage is of Saloninus and not Valerian II; similarly, without SAL or SALON, the coinage probably belongs to Valerian II.