I was just reading an article on an EDM'd coin die. (https://coinweek.com/counterfeits/c...ark-erosion-1874-three-cent-nickel-die-trial/) And it makes you wonder just how many super fakes are out there. If the counterfeiter had made a scan of the coin cleaned it up in a 3d modelling software like ZBrush and then CNC'd a replica in ultrafine graphite you may not have been able to tell. ( https://basilica.com/blog/graphite-milling-101 ) explains in better than I could. Then you get on to ancients, which it's a whole another level of possibilities for perfect fakes. Using modern technologies. People say you can spot fakes in ancients because counterfeiters fail to master the style of the die cutters... I give you... Generative Adversarial Networks. (https://machinelearningmastery.com/impressive-applications-of-generative-adversarial-networks/) Mr counterfeiter takes as many black and white photos of a certain coin from a certain timeframe at certain mint from auction catalogues to reference books to wherever. He puts them into a GAN until he has multiple photos for which imitates the look and feel of the period. He builds up a copy in a 3d modelling software flips it around to create a model of the die. Then 3d prints the model in lossless resin and casts the die in bronze. The guy in the video below makes jewelry in a similar way. As you can see this is from a hobby 3d printer, spend thousands instead of hundreds like some of the jewelry designers do on resin 3d printers and the detail is incredible. Problem with a super fake is by its very nature it's unlikely to be spotted. Where do you see counterfeit detection going?