. So who is Timarchos? Timarchos was a Greek nobleman, possibly from Miletos in Asia Minor. He was appointed Governor of Media in western Iran when Antiochos IV Epiphanes became king in 175 BC, his brother Herakleides became treasurer at Antioch, the 'capital' of the Seleukid Empire. Antiochos IV Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.) AR Drachm. Ekbatana mint, struck ca. 173-164 B.C. Obverse: Diademed head right. Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (“of King Antiochos”). Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow, resting hand on bow; to outer left, horse head left; in exergue, ΔΚ. Reference: SC 1548; HGC 9, 623. 3.99g; 18mm To make it short, in the western parts of the Seleukid kingdom, that is, in Syria, Koile Syria, Mesopotamia, and Kilikia, Lysias, the Govenor of Syria had been governing since the departure of Antiochos IV to the east in late 166 BC or perhaps early 165 BC. Lysias had with him the joint-king and son of Antiochos IV, Antiochos V, who became the sole king in 164 BC. He was about 10-years-old when his father died, during the so called Maccabean Revolt (because his father forced the Jews to worship the Greek gods) and so Lysias continued to govern, but now in the new king’s name, as his regent. Demetrios I, son of Seleukos IV, had been in Italy since the early 170s as captive, before his father died. During the reign of his uncle he had not apparently made any attempt to return to Syria or to claim the throne which he, as he made clear later, felt should be his. It would have been suicidal to arrive in Syria to make the claim while Antiochos IV was in control. Until... Antiochos IV’ died, and his position changed. A plot was organized which allowed Demetrios to apparently disappear from Rome on a hunting expedition for several days, something he was in the habit of doing. On landing at Tripolis, Demetrios at once put on a diadem, so proclaiming himself king. In Antioch the troops, under whose command we do not know, arrested Lysias, King Antiochos V, and his even younger brother and set out to bring them to Demetrios. He sent a message that he did not want to meet them, and the troops obediently killed all three. Demetrios I Soter (162-150 B.C.) AR Drachm. Ekbatana mint, 155-150 B.C. Obverse: Diademed head right of Demetrios I right. Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ - ΔHMHTPIOY / ΣΩTHPOΣ (“of King Demetrios the Saviour”) Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow in his right hand and resting his left on grounded bow. Reference: SC 1735.5. 4.13g; 17mm Herakleides, the treasurer at Antioch, seems to have been one of those officials who refused to serve Demetrios. As a result he had to go into exile, but his brother Timarchos had substantial armed forces under his control. Timarchos advanced with some care and deliberation. He can be traced first as Governor of Media, then in Babylonia, where he minted coins in his own name, and thereby claimed the royal title "Great King". At some point he contacted Rome, he is supposed to have bribed the senators and he received an ambiguous decree of recognition in return. Alternatively his brother Herakleides went to Rome on his behalf and secured the decree. Timarchos (164-161 B.C.), Usurper. AE, Denomination B (Double), Ekbatana mint. Obverse: Diademed head of Timarchos right Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΤΙΜΑΡΧΟΥ (“of Great King Timarchos”), Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch. Reference: SC 1596. 9.42g; 18mm Eventually he faced Demetrios’ army and was defeated. He is said by Diodoros to have marched as far west as the Euphrates crossing at Seleukeia-Zeugma, which was perhaps where the battle took place. It seems that it was not until 160 BC, perhaps early in that year, that Timarchos was finally defeated. After he was defeated, Demetrios deliberately overstruck the tetradrachms of Timarchos with the beautiful portrait of him and his sister-wife Laodike IV. (not mine ofcourse). Post your coins of Antiochos IV, V, Demetrios I and Timarchos (and any other Seleukid usurper), or anything you feel is relevant!