The necessity of securing his legionaries' loyalty should not be underestimated. Still, minting 22.5 million coins required vast amounts of silver bullion, and, as evidence of a proposed minting date in early 49, one need not look far to find a probable source. On April 1st, 49, Caesar addressed the remnants of the senate and the popular assembly in Rome,19 promising grain distribution and a gift of 75 denarii per mail (Dio Cass. 41.16.1). He then proceeded to the treasury at the Temple of Saturn and demanded access to the aerarium sanctius, where Rome's public wealth was stored. Although he met with stubborn opposition, Caesar managed to make off with 15,000 bars of gold, 30,000 of silver, and, we are told, a great quantity of silver coins. Here is her footnote: The incident was widely recorded: Plin. HN 33.46; cf. Cic. Att. 10.4.8; Caes. B Civ. 1.33.3; Luc. 3.114-168; Plut. Pomp. 62; Caes. 35.3-4; App. B Civ. 2.41; Dio Cass. 41.17.2. For modern discussions, see Broughton 1951-86: 2.259 and Gelzer 1968: 209-210. Harl (1996: 55 and n. 52) explicitly links the seizing of the treasury and the minting of the elephant denarius. That looks pretty straightforward, but if anyone here has better sources than Pliny, Plutarch, Cassius Dio, and Caesar's own writing, then please share them here for the benefit of humanity.