The 12 Dii Consentes, the Roman equivalent of the Olympian gods

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Roman Collector, Jun 14, 2018 at 11:49 PM.

  1. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    The Dii Consentes were twelve major deities in the pantheon of Ancient Rome, six gods and six goddesses, represented by twelve gilt statues in the Forum. Livy* arranges them in six male-female pairs: Jupiter-Juno, Neptune-Minerva, Mars-Venus, Apollo-Diana, Vulcan-Vesta and Mercury-Ceres.

    Most of the Dii Consentes are amply represented on coins of Rome and make for an interesting subcollection. Let’s see your examples of any of these gods and goddesses!

    *The Founding of the City XXII.10.9

    JUPITER:

    Licinius I IOVI CONSERVATORI follis Antioch.jpg
    Licinius I, AD 308-324.
    Roman billon follis, 3.43 g, 19.1 mm, 11 h.
    Antioch, sixth officina, AD 321-323.
    Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped scepter, another eagle to feet to left, captive seated on ground to right; X/IIΓ in field, right; SMANTS in exergue.
    Refs: RIC vii, p. 682, 35; Cohen 74; RCV 15225.

    JUNO:

    Soaemias IVNO REGINA denarius.jpg
    Julia Soaemias, Mother of Elagabalus, AD 218-222.
    Roman AR Denarius, 2.65 g, 18.6 mm, 5 h.
    Rome, AD 218.
    Obv: IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust right.
    Rev: IVNO REGINA, Juno, veiled, standing right, holding scepter and Palladium.
    Refs: RIC 237; BMCRE 41-43; Cohen 3; RCV 7718; CRE 464.

    NEPTUNE:

    Agrippa As.jpg
    Agrippa, 18-12 BC.
    Roman Æ as, 10.35 g, 27.3 mm, 7 h.
    Rome, under Caligula, AD 37-41.
    Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left, wearing rostral crown.
    Rev: S - C, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.
    Refs: RIC 58 (Caligula); BMCRE 161 (Tiberius); RCV 1812; Cohen 3 (Agrippa); CBN 77.

    MINERVA:

    Domitian Minerva denarius.jpg
    Domitian, AD 81-96.
    Roman AR denarius, 3.44 g, 17.2 mm, 7 h.
    Rome, AD 91.
    Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR XI (error; should read TR P XI), laureate head, right.
    Rev: IMP XII COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva advancing right, brandishing a javelin and holding a shield.
    Refs: RIC 156; RIC² 724; BMCRE p. 336, note; Cohen 269; RCV --.

    MARS:

    Trajan Mars Denarius.jpg
    Trajan, AD 98-117.
    Roman AR denarius, 2.92 gm, 20.1 mm, 7 h.
    Rome, AD 114-117.
    Obv: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, laureate and draped bust, right.
    Rev: P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Mars walking right with spear and trophy.
    Refs: RIC 337; BMCRE 536; Cohen 270; RCV --; Woytek 520v; Strack 230; BN 819.

    VENUS:

    Lucilla Venus As.jpg
    Lucilla, AD 164-169
    Roman Æ as, 11.49 g, 25.4 mm, 11 h.
    Rome, AD 164-166.
    Obv: LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: VENVS S C, Venus standing right, raising drapery from shoulder and holding apple in left hand.
    Refs: RIC 1770; BMCRE 1187; MIR 20; RCV 5523; Cohen 80.
     
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  3. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    APOLLO:

    Gordian III Apollo seated sestertius.jpg
    Gordian III, AD 238-244.
    Roman AE Sestertius; 20.01 gm, 28.2 mm, 11 h.
    Rome, 5th officina. 9th emission, AD 241.
    Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: PM TRP IIII COS II PP SC, Apollo seated left, holding laurel branch and resting left arm on lyre.
    Refs: RIC 302; Cohen 252; Sear --; Banti 72.

    DIANA:

    Faustina Jr Diana Sestertius.jpg
    Faustina II, AD 147-175.
    Rome, issued under Antoninus Pius, AD 154-156.
    Æ Sestertius, 25.19 g, 31.2 mm, 6 h.
    Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA AVG PII F, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: S C, Diana standing left, holding arrow and resting on bow.
    Refs: RIC 1383; BMCRE 2180; Cohen 206; RCV 4717.

    VULCAN:

    Valerian I DEO VOLKANO Antoninianus.jpg
    Valerian I, AD 253-260.
    Roman AR antoninianus, 2.69 g, 21.2 mm, 7 h.
    Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) mint, AD 259-260.
    Obv: VALERIANVS·P·F·AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
    Rev: DEO VOLKANO, Vulcan standing left within tetrastyle temple, hammer raised in right hand, tongs downward in left.
    Refs: RIC 5 (inaccurately attributed to the Lugdunum mint); Cohen 2 (inaccurately attributed to Valerian II); RSC 50c; Göbl 884d; Hunter IV 56; RCV 9934.

    VESTA:

    Mamaea VESTA patera denarius.jpg
    Julia Mamaea, AD 222-235.
    Roman AR denarius; 3.15 g, 18.3 mm, 5 h.
    Rome mint, 7th emission, AD 227.
    Obv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
    Rev: VESTA, Vesta standing left, holding patera and transverse scepter.
    Refs: RIC 362; BMCRE 440; Cohen 85; RCV 8218; CRE 513.

    MERCURY:

    Gallienus FIDES AVG Mercury.jpg
    Gallienus, AD 253-268.
    Roman billon Antoninianus, 3.34 g, 21.2 mm, 11 h.
    Antioch, AD 267.
    Obv: GALLIENUVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
    Rev: FIDES AVG, Mercury with six-pack abs, standing left, holding purse and caduceus; PXV (= TR P XV) in exergue.
    Refs: RIC 607F; RSC 219b; Göbl 1667k; RCV 10212; Hunter p. lxx.

    CERES:

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA Ceres short torch sestertius.jpg
    Faustina I, AD 138-141.
    Roman orichalcum sestertius; 22.86 g, 30.5 mm, 6 h.
    Rome, AD 147-161.
    Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: AVGV STA SC, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears in right hand and short torch slightly inclined to right in left hand.
    Refs: RIC 1117; BMCRE 1513; Cohen 79; RCV --.
     
    Last edited: Jun 15, 2018 at 12:20 AM
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  4. Ancient Aussie

    Ancient Aussie Supporter! Supporter

    Great coins RC, I suppose most of us have one or two in our collection. I will throw in a silver republican Vesta and her temple. 4krW6Qp56adAw7MyxBf83cJjwb2GY9.jpg
     
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  5. Julius Germanicus

    Julius Germanicus Well-Known Member

    MERCURY

    Bildschirmfoto 2018-06-15 um 09.03.33.png

    Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C - Draped bust of Herennius Etruscus right
    PIETAS AVGG S C - Mercury standing left, holding purse in right hand, caduceus in left
    Sestertius, Rome, spring 250-mid 251 AD
    28mm / 15.72 gr
    RIC IV 167a corr. (draped) (R 2); Cohen 12, Banti 1
     
  6. randygeki

    randygeki Coin Collector

    Great coins and post
     
  7. zumbly

    zumbly Ha'ina 'ia mai ana ka puana Supporter

    Interesting post! Looking through my file for my examples of each of these, it was striking to note how infrequently some of the 12 (eg., Vulcan, Ceres, Diana) appeared on coins compared to how often other deities or personifications like Sol, Pax, Pietas, Concordia etc etc featured.

    JUPITER (Licinius, AE Follis)
    Jupiter - Licinius I - Iovi Nicomedia c 311 heavy.jpg

    JUNO
    (Crispina, AR Denarius)
    Juno - Crispina - Denarius Juno 2243.jpg

    NEPTUNE
    (Claudius II, AE Antoninianus)
    Neptune - Claudius II - Neptune 083.jpg

    MINERVA
    (Domitian, AR Denarius)
    Minerva - Domitian Denarius Owl.jpg

    MARS
    (Gordian III, AR Antoninianus)
    Mars - Gordian III - Mars 2182.jpg

    VENUS
    (Julia Domna, AR Denarius)
    Venus - Julia Domna - Veneri Victr.jpg
     
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  8. zumbly

    zumbly Ha'ina 'ia mai ana ka puana Supporter

    APOLLO (Caracalla, AR Denarius)
    Apollo - Caracalla - Denarius Apollo 2093 new.jpg

    DIANA
    (Antoninus Pius, AR Denarius)
    Diana - Antoninus Pius - Denarius Diana Caesar 1932.jpg

    VULCAN
    (Valerian, Billon Antoninianus)
    Vulcan - Valerian - Deo Volkano EE Clain-Stefanelli 2571.jpg

    VESTA
    (Caligula, AE As)
    Vesta - Lot - Caligula.jpg

    MERCURY
    (Gallienus, Billon Antoninianus)
    Mercury - Gallienus - Fides Mercury.jpg

    CERES
    (Claudius, AE Dupondius)
    Ceres - Claudius Ceres New.jpg
     
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  9. dougsmit

    dougsmit Member Supporter

    We rarely get an original subject here anymore but this is a good one. I find the six pairings an interesting idea. We have the king and queen; strength and wisdom; war and love. Apollo is the male who best displayed a feminine side while his sister Diana, the huntress, had no problem keeping up with the boys. Vulcan and Vesta gave us the commonly paired concepts of hearth and home. I am at a bit of a loss to tie up Mercury and Ceres in a neat little package like the others. Help, please!

    Religions tend to develop over time. The twelve here had to yield a bit in later days to new (to Rome) gods which also came as a pair. Here is Isis and Serapis from the time of Commodus.
    pc0350bb1157.jpg

    We were challenged to show coins of the twelve. Some are easier than others. Most difficult will be to show coins with the pairs shown together. I doubt there are very many of the six pairs. I know I do not have them.
    Apollo and Diana.
    SEVERUS ALEXANDER SELEUCIA AD CALYCADNUM 222-235 AD
    AE25 ARTEMIS/APOLLO BUSTS ex. Ken Dorney 1999
    pn1880bb1993.jpg


    I'll rush to be third to show the Valerian Vulcan. Who has a different coin of this god?
    rp1510bb0728.jpg
     
    Last edited: Jun 15, 2018 at 4:23 AM
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  10. Ancient Aussie

    Ancient Aussie Supporter! Supporter

    All nice examples zumbly, I really love that Claudius Ceres an excellent example
    with ceres in great detail and best of all I love the Claudius portrait with his tough don't get in my way or I will step on you look. :punch:
     
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  11. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Lovely coins, @Ancient Aussie @Julius Germanicus @zumbly and @dougsmit !

    Doug, thanks as always for your insightful and thought-provoking comments.

    Mercury was the god of transporting and selling stuff while Ceres was the goddess of growing stuff. The Yin and Yang of Ceres and Mercury might be seen as that of groceries and grocer.

    I like how you've linked Isis and Serapis to the original twelve. It never dawned on me to include them, but now that you've pointed it out, their parallel to the other members of the Dii Consentes is obvious!

    So I shall add SERAPIS and ISIS:

    Annia Faustina Isinda.jpg
    Annia Faustina, AD 221.
    Roman provincial AE 25.0 mm, 8.55 g.
    Pisidia, Isinda, AD 221.
    Obv: ANNIAN FAVCTEINAN, bare-headed and draped bust right.
    Rev: [ΙΣ] ΙΝ ΔΕΩΝ, Confronted heads of Serapis and Isis, in field, E-Delta (yr. 4 ).
    Refs: Ex Lindgren I A1322A, ex von Aulock, Pisidia I 833.
     
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  12. Petavius

    Petavius New Member

    Roman Collector, you are risking an outburst of jelousy and rage from Vulcan! Venus is his wife! And you coupled her with Mars!
     
  13. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    GREAT idea @Roman Collector ! Great coins and great collecting idea.

    DII Under the ROMAN REPUBLIC (yeah, the folks who STARTED them.)

    JUPITER:
    upload_2018-6-15_8-12-25.png
    RR Anon AR Heavy Quinarius Quadrigatus Drachm 216-214 BCE Janus ROMA Jupiter Victory Quadriga LEFT Cr 29-4 Sear 35 Scarce

    JUNO:
    upload_2018-6-15_8-13-28.png
    RR Hd Juno Sospita R goat skin hddrss She-wolf R placing stick on fire eagle stndng fanning flames 45 BCE 19.0mm 4.07g Cr 472-1

    NEPTUNE:
    RR Lucretius Trio 76 BCE AR Den Neptune dolphin boy  S 322 Cr 390-2.jpg
    RR Lucretius Trio 76 BCE AR Den Neptune dolphin boy S 322 Cr 390-2

    MINERVA:
    RR Anon AE Triens 157-156 BC Minerva Prow RARE Cr 198B-3 S 989.jpg
    RR Anon AE Triens 157-156 BC Minerva Prow RARE Cr 198B-3 S 989

    MARS:
    upload_2018-6-15_8-31-23.png

    RR Anon Ca 240 BCE AR Heavy Quinarius Drachm 16mm 3.0g Rome Helmet Hd Mars r - Horse’s hd sickle Cr 25-2 Syd 25 RSC 34a Rare

    VENUS:
    RR Naevius Balbus 79 BCE AR Den Venus SC TRIGA Sulla S 309 Cr 382-1.jpg
    RR Naevius Balbus 79 BCE AR Den Venus SC TRIGA Sulla S 309 Cr 382-1
     
  14. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    APOLLO:
    upload_2018-6-15_8-36-40.png
    RR Anon 234-231 BCE AR Heavy Denarius - Didrachm Apollo-Horse prancing Crawford 26-1 Sear 28

    DIANA:
    RR C Hosidius C F Geta 68 BCE Diana bow quiver Boar Hound spear Sear 346 Craw 407-2.jpg
    RR C Hosidius C F Geta 68 BCE Diana bow quiver Boar Hound spear Sear 346 Craw 407-2

    VULCAN:
    Samnium Aesernia 263-240 BC AE 20 Vulcan Pilos Tongs Jupiter Biga.jpg
    Samnium Aesernia 263-240 BC AE 20 Vulcan Pilos Tongs Jupiter Biga

    VESTA:
    RI Vitellius 69 CE AR Denarius Pont Max Vesta Seated RIC 107.jpg
    RI Vitellius 69 CE AR Denarius Pont Max Vesta Seated RIC 107

    MERCURY:
    RR Anon AE Semuncia 217-215 Mercury Prow S 620 Cr 38-7.jpg
    RR Anon AE Semuncia 217-215 Mercury Prow S 620 Cr 38-7

    CERES:
    RI Titus 79-81 CE AR Denarius Ceres seated corn ear poppy torch.jpg
    RI Titus 79-81 CE AR Denarius Ceres seated corn ear poppy torch
     
  15. ancient coin hunter

    ancient coin hunter in hoc signo vinces

    I believe out of all these I only have Apollo...

    gordian3.jpg

    gordian4.jpg
     
  16. ancient coin hunter

    ancient coin hunter in hoc signo vinces

    Speak of the Devil (or Neptune!) Just received this in the mail today. It's from the venerable John Anthony (ex @Sallent collection)...

    Septimius Severus, A.R. Denarius, Rome mint, 210 C.E.

    3.3 grams, 19.1 mm

    Obverse: Laureate head right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG

    Reverse: PMTRP XVIII COS III PP

    Neptune standing left, nude but for cloak over left shoulder and right arm, right foot on rock, right arm resting on right knee, trident vertical behind in left hand

    septsev1.jpg

    septsev2.jpg
     
  17. IdesOfMarch01

    IdesOfMarch01 Well-Known Member

    One of my favorite reverses is on this Augustus aureus, with Diana in full hunting regalia:

    DIANA:

    2d - Augustus AV aureus.jpg

    AUGUSTUS
    AV Aureus (7.90 g.) Lugdunum circa 11 - 10 B.C. RIC 196
    AVGVSTVS - DIVI-f Laureate head right. Rev. IMP - XII Diana, wearing polos and long drapery, advancing right, holding bow and taking arrow from quiver. In exergue, SICIL.
    From the Biaggi collection, ex Gilhofer & Ranschburg and Hess 22 May 1935
     
  18. 7Calbrey

    7Calbrey Well-Known Member

    The reverse of the following coin seems to be marrying Apollo wit Diana. Don't need to post 2 coins. ClaudDin R     Ric 219.jpg ClaudDiana O ANT.jpg Claudius II
     
  19. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Awesome Republican examples!!
     
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  20. chrsmat71

    chrsmat71 I LIKE TURTLES! Supporter

    That's an awesome idea for a collection @Roman Collector !

    I missing a couple, but I've accumulated several coins of Juno.


    2 with peacock buddy.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    This one Sospita flavored.

    [​IMG]
     
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