Concordia, Libertas, Pietas and Virtus. I have previously explored his Libertas issues. This edition of T-Bone Tuesday examines the Pietas issues of Trebonianus Gallus. Let's see your coins of Pietas, T-bone, or anything you feel is relevant! Pietas was a complex, highly valued Roman virtue. The concept of pietas encompasses respect and dutiful conduct to the gods, to family, to other people and to the state. As such, pietas emphasizes understanding one's place in society and consequently, one's duties to society. It's all about showing respect. Coins depicting Pietas were issued at Rome and at the so-called branch mint (formerly attributed to Milan, discussed previously here and here), but not at the mint in Antioch. Mattingly, writing in RIC, confidently assigns the coins to Rome's third issue and the branch mint's second issue. The issues at Rome occur both with and without a star in the right field. In an analysis of the Dorchester hoard, Mattingly notes that the issues with the star (71 examples for Gallus, 83 for Volusian) are uniformly underrepresented compared to those without the star (200 for Gallus, 195 for Volusian) by about 2-1/2 to 1. On the basis of the portraiture and other factors, he tentatively assigns the following dates to the issues. With star: Mid-August to mid-November, AD 251 (3 months). Without star: mid-November, AD 251 to mid-July, AD 252 (8 months). The meaning of the star is unclear. Mattingly muses on this issue, stating, "The star is a symbol of happy omen, but its exact significance here is uncertain," and then reports a thought-provoking postulate by Dr. Sutherland: "can it perhaps suggest the divinity of the dead Emperors, Decius, Etruscus, and Hostilian?" We shall never know. Rome mint: Trebonianus Gallus, AD 251-253. Roman AR antoninianus, 3.95 g, 22.2 mm, 12 h. Rome, 3rd officina, 3rd emission, Mid-August to mid-November, AD 251. Obv: IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right. Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Pietas, veiled, standing left, raising both arms; star in right field. Refs: RIC 42; RSC 84a; RCV 9642; Hunter 12. Trebonianus Gallus, AD 251-253. Roman AR antoninianus, 3.59 g, 21.7 mm, 5 h. Rome, 3rd officina, 3rd emission, mid-November, AD 251 to mid-July, AD 252. Obv: IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right. Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Pietas, veiled, standing left, raising both arms; no star in field. Refs: RIC 41; RSC 84; RCV 9642; Hunter 10. Branch mint: Trebonianus Gallus, AD 251-253. Roman AR Antoninianus, 3.69 g, 20.2 mm, 7 h. Branch mint (traditionally attributed to Mediolanum), 2nd emission, AD 252-253. Obv: IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right. Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing left and raising both hands; altar at feet. Refs: RIC 72; Cohen 88; RCV 9643. Note: Die cud, not an intentional design feature, in upper right field. ~~~ 1. Mattingly, Harold, et al. The Roman Imperial Coinage Vol. IV. Part III. Gordian III – Uranius Antoninus. Spink, 1949, pp. 154, 157. 2. Harold Mattingly, "The Reigns of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusian and of Aemilian." The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society Sixth Series, Vol. 6, No. 1/2 (1946), pp. 36-46 (particularly pp. 39-41).