Roman Nummi (folli) of the Late 3rd - Early 4th Century

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Al Kowsky, Aug 13, 2018.

  1. Cucumbor

    Cucumbor Dombes collector Supporter

    Some great coins @Al Kowsky and welcome here !
    And a nice bunch from other members too

    Diocletian :

    [​IMG]
    Alexandria mint, 2nd officina, c. AD 304-305
    IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust of Diocletianus right
    IOVI CONS CAES, Jupiter standing left, holding victory and spear. B in right field S | P in lower field, ALE at exergue
    11.21 gr
    Ref : Cohen # 173, RCV # 12805 (180), RIC VI # 41

    Maximian :

    [​IMG]
    Aquilea mint, 1st officina, AD 301
    IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, Laureate head of Maximianus right
    SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding cornucopia and scales. AQP at exergue, V in right field
    10.35 gr
    Ref :RCV # 13300 (100), Cohen #504, RIC VI # 29b

    Constantius :

    [​IMG]
    Trier mint, 1st officina, AD 305-306
    IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust of Constantius right
    GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. S | F in field, PTR at exergue
    11.09 gr
    Ref : RCV # 14176 (100), Cohen #116, RIC VI # 642a

    Galerius :

    [​IMG]
    Heraclea mint, 5th officina, c. AD 296-298
    GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust of Galerius right
    GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, , Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, HTE at exergue
    10.58 gr
    Ref : RCV # 14372 (90), Cohen #78

    Severus ii :

    [​IMG]
    Heraclea mint, 6th officina, c. AD 306-307
    IMP C FLA VAL SEVERVS P F AVG, Laureate head of Severus II right
    GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. HTζ at exergue
    9.90 gr
    Ref : RCV # 14673v, Cohen -

    Maximinus II :

    [​IMG]
    Antioch mint, 2nd officina, AD 310-311
    IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head of Maximinus II right
    GENIO EXERCITVS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia, cressent and S in field, ANT at exergue
    7.28 gr
    Ref : RCV # 14845 (55), Cohen #47

    Maxentius :

    [​IMG]
    Aquilea mint, 1st officina, AD 309-310
    IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
    CONSERV VRBS SVAE, Tetrastyle temple, Roma seated left, a foot on captive, giving a globe to Maxentius standing right. She wolf suckling Romulus and Remus in pediment. AQP at exergue
    6.55 gr
    Ref : RCV # 14992 (100), Cohen #42

    Romulus :

    [​IMG]
    Posthumous issue under the reign of his father Maxentius
    Ostia mint, 1st officina, AD 309-310
    DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, Bare head of Romulus right
    AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, M OST P at exergue
    7.35 gr
    RCV # 15050 (550), Cohen #6, RIC VI # 34


    Licinius :

    [​IMG]
    Alexandria mint, 3rd officina, c. AD 308-310
    IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
    GENIO IMPE - RATORIS, Genius standing facing, head left wearing modius, Chlamys over left shoulder, holding cornucopia and patera. ALE at exergue, K | P in lower field, Γ in right field
    9.02 gr 24/26 mm
    Ref : RIC VI # 101b, RCV # 15179 (65), Cohen # 43
    Ex Voz collection of Roman imperial

    Constantine the Great :

    [​IMG]
    Follis struck in Trier, 1st officina, in 306-307 AD
    FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate and draped bust of Constantine right
    GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia. S A in field, PTR at exergue
    9.21 gr, 29 mm
    Ref : RC #3833, Cohen #218

    Q
     
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  3. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    • A much abbreviated selection from my gallery
    • Rare or hard to come by London Mint coins
    • The coinage information on this page is based on THE ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE, Volume VI, Londinium (RIC - Sutherland) and THE LONDON MINT OF CONSTANTIUS AND CONSTANTINE (CT - Cloke/Toone) which includes considerable additional and revised material, including a new catalog numbering and rarity assessment system.
    • RIC uses follis/folles as the nomenclature for this coinage while CT uses nummus/nummi.
    • I use RIC catalog numbers for all coin depictions (if applicable) and include equivalent CT catalog numbers where appropriate.
    • CT uses a rarity assessment scale for London Mint coinage which I believe is realistic and up-to-date being based on four significant Census Hoard finds that comprise over 3,000 London Mint coins.
      C - Common: 25 to 150 examples (over 150 - very common CC)
      S - Scarce: 5 to 24 examples
      R - Rare: 0 to 4 examples (0 - very rare RR)
    • For a concise, illustrated, historical survey of this period Go to this page
    Initial Constantius London Mint coinage

    The coin obverses and reverses of the initial production coin series replicate those of the Constantius Invasion coinage except there is now a LON mint mark in the exergue.

    RIC Volume VI, Londinium, No. 1a, Diocletian, Augustus of the East
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 1.01.001, c. AD 296, Rarity: R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG .................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI
    LON in reverse exergue

    Laureate, truncated, bare neck bust.
    Laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
    LON mint mark in the reverse exergue.
    All LON mint mark coins are designated Rare by CT.
    As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 1.
    9.8 gm.



    Intermedite coins (Bastien) produced by the London Mint

    Intermediate series coin, not in RIC, Galerius Maximian, Caesar of the East:
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 1.02.004 (2), c. AD 296, Rarity: R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    Laureate with truncated bare neck bust.
    London style lettering
    These intermediate style folles were issued immediately following the LON marked coins.
    Some had laureate bare neck truncated busts, others had laureate cuirassed busts, some with elaborate consular features.
    All had the laurel wreath long ribbon tie laying on the neck.
    All had London style inscriptional lettering and did not bear the LON mint mark.
    10.1 gm.

    Subsequent London Mint coinage


    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 14a, Constantius, Caesar of the West:
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.010 (3), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: S/R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
    Small head on a tall neck.
    Reminiscent of Carausius/Allectus Mint "long neck" Antoniniani
    Maybe the work of former Carausius/Allectus Mint die engravers?
    9.8 gm.



    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 20, Constantius, Caesar of the West
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 2.01.010 (1), c. AD 296-303, Rarity: R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C ........................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    Laureate, cuirassed, bust with long ribbon tie laying on neck.
    London style lettering.
    9.8 gm.

    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 42, Galerius Maximian, Augustus of the East:
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.03.004, AD 1 May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: S/R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
    Identical obverse inscription (2C) to the primary one of Maximian Herculius.
    9.7 gm.

    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 46 (variant), Severus, Augustus of the West:
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.04.004, 26 July 306 - Spring 307, Rarity: RR

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    IMP SEVERVS PIVS FEL AVG ........................... GENIO POPV - LI ROMANI

    Draped laureate bust.
    This variant (PIVS FEL instead of PIVS FELIX) is listed as RR by CT.
    9.4 gm.

    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 47, Constantius, Augustus of the West:
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.02.003, 1 May 305 - 26 July 306, Rarity: R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    IMP CONSTANTIVS PIVS FEL AVG ....................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    Earliest obverse legend style.
    Laureate, cuirassed, bust.
    9.9 gm.

    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 59a, Severus, Caesar of the West:
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.02.016, 1 May 305 - 26 July 306, Rarity: S/R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES ......................... GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    Earliest obverse legend style.
    Draped, laurate, bust.
    10.3gm

    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 76b, Maximian Herculius (Abdication commemorative):
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 4.01.003, c. May 305 - Spring 307, Rarity: R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    DN MAXIMIANO BEATISSIMO SEN AVG
    PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG

    Obverse: Laureate bust of Maximian Herculius in Imperial mantle holding mappa in right hand and olive branch in left hand.
    Reverse: Personification of Providentia, standing left, and extending hand to personification of Quies, standing right, holding olive branch and leaning on sceptre.
    9.8 gm.

    RIC VI, Londinium, No. 89b, Constantine, Caesar of the West:
    CT (Cloke & Toone), No. 5.03.004, c. November - December AD 307, Rarity: R

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    FL VAL CONSTANTINIVS NOB C ........................... GENIO - POP ROM
    PLN in reverse exergue

    Draped, laureate, bust.
    Genius with head towered and loins draped.
    Issued shortly after the death of Constantius following recognition as Caesar by Galerius.
    9.3 gm. .
     
    Last edited: Aug 14, 2018
  4. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    THE BRITISH INVASION COINAGE OF CONSTANTIUS
    Notes and Production Information


    Historical Overview

    In 293 Diocletian finalized the Institution of a Tetrarchy -- government of the Empire by four interacting rulers -- two Augusti assisted by two subordinate Caesars, which each Augustus would personally select. The two Caesars, chosen because of their proven leadership abilities, assisted the Augusti with civil administration and command of the armies. Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was chosen by Diocletian to be his Caesar of the East and Flavius Valerius Constantius was chosen by Maximian Herculius be his Caesar of the West.

    The first assignment given Constantius by Maximian Herculius was to remove Carausius, the usurper Augustus of secessionist Britain, and restore that former possession to the Empire. Constantius thereupon beseiged and captured Boulogne and then wrested coastal Gaul from Carausius. Constantius now set about planning the invasion, occupation and restoration of secessionist Britain to the Empire. One of the first orders of business for Constantius in 294 was to insure that a supply of reformed aes coinage (folles) - now the commonplace legal tender of the Roman Empire - was available for use not only by his occupying force, but also by the British civilian populace. To that end Constantius established a Mint in Gaul (exact location usually listed as unknown, although some French sources list it as Boulogne), manned by Lugdunese workers, to produce this invasion coinage - unmarked (i.e. without a mint mark) issued in the names of Diocletian & Maximian Herculius as Augusti and Constantius & Galerius Maximian as Caesars.

    Notes

    • In his introductory notes to RIC VI, Londinium, Sutherland states that "Bastien is to be followed in regarding the umarked coins of Class I as an issue prepared in advance for Constantius' invasion of Britain in 296".
    • Coin obverses depict right facing busts with bare neck truncation and laureate heads with the long laurel wreath ribbon laying on the neck. The Genius of the Roman People reverse depiction and inscription is standard with no mint mark. The inscriptional lettering is relatively large with delicate letterforms.
    • Reverse axis is 6 or 12 o'clock.
    • Weight range is 10.5 to 8.75 gm.

    Invasion Coinage produced at (unknown) Mint in Gaul

    RIC Volume VI, Lugdunum, Group I, (iv), folles, Class I, No. 14-21, c. 296, 10.5-8.75 gm.

    No. 14a - Diocletian:

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG ............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    9.8 gm

    No. 14b - Maximian Herculius:

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG ................................. GENIO POP -- VLI ROMANI

    8.9 gm

    No. 17a - Constantius:

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    10.1 gm
    Fully silvered

    No. 17b - Galerius Maximian:

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C .............................. GENIO POPV -- LI ROMANI

    10.3 gm.
    As depicted in RIC Volume VI, Plate 3.

    Go to the Home page
     
  5. Gallienus

    Gallienus Well-Known Member

    Thanks Jamesicus for your explanation of the Tetarchy and coinage of the re-invasion of Britain. By posting after you I can always find your excellent post for reference!

    As with many purist collectors / non-dealers, I've also been fascinated by these large, apparently highly circulating bronzes of the "restored Empire". I've 3 of these. I'm still used to calling them folles, why the change to nummi?

    [​IMG]
    Diocletion (r. 284-305 AD), follis, this one from CNG direct sales ca, 1989.

    [​IMG]
    Constantine I (r. 307 - 337 AD: the Great), follis ca. 307 AD
    This was made I believe while his father was still alive and possibly before he assumed the title Augustus
    Leu Numismatik, 2019

    [​IMG]

    Julian (r. 361 - 363 AD: the Apostate), follis
    Gorny & Mosch, 2018

    Hence after a hiatus of 29 years, I've started to buy a few folles/ nummia again. If I get one per year, I'll be happy. I should mention that around 2012 I got a double sestersius of Postumus which is of similar module but not related to this set.

    It's interesting why these died out near the end of the 4th century? Since none are slabbed & I've a Ohaus analytical balance I should be able to provide weights & dims.
     
    Last edited: Sep 14, 2019
  6. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    Why thank you @Gallienus

    Romeo and Juliet, Wm. Shakespeare, (Act II, ii, 1-2)

    Juliet:
    "What's in a name? That which we call a rose
    By any other name would smell as sweet."

    Great coins BTW.
     
    Last edited: Sep 14, 2019
    Gallienus and Curtisimo like this.
  7. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    This is an early thread I created for Coin Talk & glad to see there are still more posts being added-on :D. The answer to Gallienus' question "why the change to nummi ?" can be found in Kenneth Harl's book Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700 copyright 1996. The correct name for these large bronze coins has always been Nummi, as stated in Diocletians Edict. Where the name follis came from I'm not sure but many of the older reference books like the books David Sear authored use the name follis. I still find myself using the name follis by habit. David Vagi uses the name BI Nummus on the NGC slabs as pictured below.

    IMG_1396 - Copy.jpg
     
  8. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    For instance, The ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE (RIC), Sutherland and Carson, Volume VI, Diocletian to Maximinus (Spink), 1967, 1973, 1984, 1997, 2003 - still a standard reference, where it is the term used to describe and catalog the coinage throughout. Follis (folles) also used in RIC, Volume VII, Patrick Bruun, Constantine & Licinius and on the Wildwinds search facility for these coin issues.
     
    Last edited: Sep 14, 2019
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  9. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    I did a Google search for the word Follis, & Wikipedia give a plausible explanation of the origin of the word & its misuse still going on today. See the link below.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Follis
     
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  10. Terence Cheesman

    Terence Cheesman Supporter! Supporter

    Maxentius As Caesar Carthage
    Obv M. AVR. MAXENTIVS NOB. CAES.
    Rv. SALVS AVGG. ET CAESS. FEL KART RIC 51a 306 A.D. 10.80 grms 27 mm maxent4.JPG
     
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  11. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    The point is follis/folles is used almost universally in the coin collecting community and Wikipedia is hardly an authoritative reference.
     
    Gallienus likes this.
  12. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    Just because a large group of people are misusing a word, follis, doesn't make it right. Are you a better authority than Wikipedia o_O?
     
  13. Curtisimo

    Curtisimo the Great(ish) Supporter

    If I may be allowed a belated pile on?..

    Write up:
    Diocletian: Two Interesting Coins and a Legacy of Reform
    B3F3F55E-5752-411D-BAC4-41118040AFA0.jpeg
    Roman Empire
    Diocletian, AD 284-305
    AE Follis, Ticinum mint, struck AD 296-297
    Dia.: 31 mm
    Wt.: 8.63 g
    Obv.: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Diocletian right
    Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius wearing mural crown holding patera and cornucopia
    Ref.: RIC VI 33


    Write up:
    Diocletian: One of the Earliest Post Reform Coins from Lugdunum
    85A95CDB-0D49-44C6-A98C-A07D50F542F7.jpeg
    Roman Empire
    Diocletian, AD 284-305
    AE Follis, Lugdunum Mint, 1st officina, struck ca. AD 295
    Dia.: 28 mm
    Wt.: 8.5 g
    Obv.: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG; Laureate bust right
    Rev.: GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI: Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia /LA in exergue
    Ref.: RIC VI 2a, Lugdunum Group I, Class II
    Ex Jamesicus Collection


    Write up in progress... hope to finish my study by the end of the year.
    This is one of Constantius’s Invasion Coins and is by far my favorite Follis of this time period. Truly a coin with some fascinating history.
    4FE4CB6D-2E0C-4E16-A1C8-1098EDF89D31.jpeg
    Roman Empire
    Constantius Chlorus (AD 293-306)
    AE Follis, silvered, Lugdunum/traveling mint, struck ca. AD 296
    Obv.: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Laureate bust right
    Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
    Ref.: RIC VI 17a
    Ex James Pickering Collection of Britannic Coinage


    This was a coin for which I really like the portrait style. Another Constantius I.
    30254B18-B947-4951-829A-860C3992FB77.jpeg
     
  14. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    No.

    But look, I am an easy guy to get along with - I wrote elsewhere the following:
    • The London Mint coinage information is now based on THE ROMAN IMPERIAL COINAGE, Volume VI, Londinium (RIC - Sutherland) and THE LONDON MINT OF CONSTANTIUS AND CONSTANTINE (CT - Cloke/Toone) which includes considerable additional and revised material, including a new catalog numbering and attribution system and a rarity assessment for each listed coin.
    • RIC uses follis/folles as the nomenclature for this coinage while CT uses nummus/nummi.
    • I use RIC catalog numbers for all coin depictions (if applicable) and include equivalent CT catalog numbers where appropriate.
    In the spirit of friendship (both to you, Al Kowsky, and especially to my good friend Hugh Cloke) I will use follis/nummus (folles/nummi) in the future when discussing those coins here. But I will continue to use follis (folles) on my web pages because that is how they are categorized and named in RIC.
     
    Last edited: Sep 15, 2019
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  15. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    Well Curtis, by all means join the party. That is a great post showing some really excellent historical folles/nummi (!) a couple of which I am somewhat familiar with!
     
    Curtisimo likes this.
  16. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    On a personal level I don't care what word a collector uses to describe the large bronze coins of the tetrarchy, follis or nummus, since I often find myself using the wrong word follis. I'm not too inflexible to accept change. We all know what coins we're talking about regardless what word you chose :D.
     
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  17. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    I just visited all of the links you posted Curtis - that is a tremendous body of work you have produced and are still producing. As usual it is all meticulously researched and very well written. I am really looking forward to the write-up I referenced above.
     
  18. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    As far as I am concerned, welcome @maridvnvm! Excellent write-up and great coins as usual. That first Maximianus Herculius Coin is fantastic!
     
  19. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    Curtisimo, I just finished reading your Featured article that was originally posted long before I joined CT & was impressed with your research & finished article ;)! I became very interested in Diocletian after being hired by a QC supervisor, about 34 years ago, who was born in Split, Croatia & shared many interesting stories about his childhood playing around the ruins of that city. I would enjoy visiting that city as you have before I expire :dead:. I bought a wonderful book about Diocletian several years ago that you would enjoy if you haven't seen it already: DIOCLETIAN AND THE ROMAN RECOVERY by Stephen Williams, copyright 1985.
     
  20. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    jamesicus, Today I had a chance to browse through your website & thoroughly enjoyed your section on Romano-British coinage. It's a valuable resource to us collectors who don't have RIC reference books :).
     
  21. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    Thank you Al, I appreciate your comments very much.

    Added via Edit:

    Actually it seems many collectors here use the excellent Wildwinds Search Facility and/or the Sear books for identification and attribution of these coins. I do not know how many own complete sets or individual volumes of RIC (or other references such as BMCRE, Cohen, et al).
     
    Last edited: Sep 16, 2019
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