10 to 6: Autonomous civic tetradrachms. In order: Myrina, Kyme, Smyrna, Magnesia. The treaty of Apamea (188 BCE) forced the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III (241-187 BCE) to surrender all of Asia west of the Taurus mountains, which resulted in the cessation of Seleucid authority in Asia Minor (modern Anatolia). The inland area of Asia Minor was split between Pergamum and Rhodes. The coastal Greek cities were also split, with some granted also to Pergamum. The remaining cities were granted their independence. As many as 18 cities in Asia Minor were expressly granted autonomy and these nominally independent city states subsequently struck civic tetradrachms, abandoning the old royal types. All of these coins were struck on the reduced Attic standard, and were struck on broad, thin flans that were influenced by the Athenian New Style coinage. These series also copied a feature on their reverses, a large laurel wreath that formed the border encompassing the entire reverse type. The types appearing on the coins clearly indicated their civic nature, depicting the city's patron deity on the obverse, and various aspects of the city's culture on the reverse. There are 14 civic types known from CNG sale records, although apparently as many as 17 are known. The issues of Myrina, Kyme, Magnesia, and Herakleia constitute almost 75% of CNG sold examples. Nicholas F. Jones (The autonomous wreathed tetradrachms of Magnesia-on-Maeander) suggests that the introduction of the Cistophoric tetradrachm in the kingdom of Pergamon (and the abandonment of royal types) may have given impetus to the city states to strike their own autonomous civic tetradrachms again. However in reality the reason for the striking of these civic tetradrachms is unknown. 5. Tetradrachm of Athens. I've always wanted one where the owl is engraved well, and this one ticks the box. 4. Denarius of Brutus. This denarius was probably struck in honour of Brutus and Cassius's meeting at Smyrna, as there are several issues which share the same reverse. These coins struck by the tyrannicides were likely funded by extortion from the rich cities of Asia Minor. A curious feature of this series of coins is the rough fields that may have been caused by failing to smoothen the die surfaces before striking. This feature can be clearly seen on the reverse of this denarius. 3 and 2: tremissi of the sons of Theodosius, Arcadius and Honorius. I've always liked late Roman gold, although the reverse designs soon became practically immobilised, except for the rare consular or marriage issues. These early tremissi were actually struck pretty rarely and are not that common. The first was struck in Mediolanum (Milan) and the second in Ravenna, both of which were located in the Western Roman Empire. Honorius was the ruler of the Western Empire, so why does one tremissis show the bust of Arcadius? I understand it's because there was the practice of striking coins in each other's names. Also interesting is that Mediolanum used the formula COM, while Ravenna used COMOB. Full standardisation across the mints was yet to come. 1. 1.5 scripulum of Valens. The 1.5 scripulum was a denomination was an odd coin of about 1.7g which stood in awkward relationship to the Solidus, which weighed 4.5g. It ceased to be struck with the introduction of the tremissis, which weighed a convenient 1.5g (one third of a solidus). The denomination itself was not rare, but apparently individual issues were quite small and are consequently scarce. I find them interesting because of their reverse designs which can be quite different. I hope everyone has a good collecting year ahead in 2020.