I have questions on coins with “historical pedigrees” as noted by some dealers these days. I understand the importance of dealer provenance on certain coins, but how do we prove a “historical pedigree” without secondary source documentation? It's best if I use an example of a hypothetical “X” denarius coin purchased in this day and age. This is the hypothetical (abbreviated) coin description: Republican “X” denarius. provenance: ex. CNX 2021; ex. NFY 1970; ex. MMZ 1955; from “The So&So Collection” of ancient coins. I understand the trail of dealers selling the product provides a particular time and place, which can be verified. But my question is on the note claiming that it is from “The So&So Collection” that once owned this coin “X” in their private collection, presumably. (At this point I am reminded of the Seinfeld episode; “The Mom & Pop Store”. George bought a convertible claimed to be “once owned by Jon Voight”.) Unless one has a photo of “So&So” holding “X” denarius, or has a signed letter (document) of “So&So” mentioning “X” denarius, or a signed, dated receipt listing “So&So” as acquiring “X” denarius, there is no real definitive secondary proof “So&So” once owned “X” coin, other than the original dealer's word. Secondary proof is often provided when buying an old “pedigreed” car. For example, dealer “Y” selling a car states, “Henry Ford once owned” this model T car. She provides a Ford receipt with the same VIN, plus she has a 1920's photo of Ford in the exact same car in his private driveway, and showing the same right fender dents. I know provenance adds value, gives past time and place, is fun, marks up coin prices, adds interest and can be a challenge to verify. But without secondary proof, “historical pedigree” seems more like gossip and rumor. Without this proof, how can we be certain “X” denarius is in fact a “historical pedigree” coin, aside from the dealer's word? Does anyone have a “historical pedigree” coin with the original owner photographed holding the coin? Or a letter from the original owner discussing the coin? Or perhaps a signed receipt for the original coin to the pedigree owner?