Probus (276-282 AD), Antoninianus, Antioch, (3.98 g, 20.20 mm). Obv: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG. Rev: RESTITVT ORBIS. RIC 925. I really like this coin since it’s the only antoninianus I have with any silvering left (I have a really low budget for coins) I wonder if there are any coins with longer obverse inscriptions. I figured out imperator caesar Marcus Aurelius Probus P F Augustus. I would really appreciate if someone could tell me what P and F stood for! Like Claudius II and Aurelian before him, Probus was one of the Illyrian generals that rose to the purple during the last years of the Crisis of the Third Century. After Aurelian’s assassination and following the short reign of Tacitus, Florianus, Tacitus’s brother, usurped the throne without the approval of the senate. As the supreme commander of all the eastern provinces, Probus had a formidable force behind him should he ever decide to claim the throne, so, styling himself as the avenger of the senate, he alone dared to rise up in revolt against Florianus. The military acumen of Probus, combined with the hot and humid environment of Asia Minor, was enough for the troops under Florianus to kill their emperor, ending the civil war. During his reign, Probus campaigned against the barbarians along the northern frontiers of the empire, who had grown emboldened upon the death of Aurelian. Were it not for Probus, the extraordinary gains made by Aurelian in reuniting and stabilizing the fractured empire would likely have been lost. Not content with waging only a defensive war, he supplemented the gains made by Aurelian by venturing across the Rhine and waging war in the Germans’ own territories, securing a favorable peace. Among the conditions of this peace was the supply of much-needed German recruits for the Roman army, which had been dangerously weakened by decades of internal and external strife, as well as plague. After suppressing barbarian incursions and internal rebellions, Probes turned to rebuilding the infrastructure of the empire, which had fallen into considerable disrepair over the past decades. The soldiers, equally skilled with a sword as they were with a pick, were thus kept busy in this time of peace, building temples, repairing roads, and even planting vineyards in the hills of Gaul and Pannonia, which contain significant wine-producing regions to this day. But in his good intentions, Probus failed to realize the anger that was bound to arise in his soldiers when relegated to menial labor. According to Gibbons, compounding this was an offhand remark he made about his hope for a world, with peace firmly established, without the need for a standing army. On a hot summer’s day, a group of soldiers under his command, fatigued and disgruntled about the work of draining a swamp, suddenly rose up in mutiny and in a fit of rage, stabbed him to death. Then, as with Aurelian, with their passions subdued, they immediately regretted the murder such a wise and just emperor. Probus is definitely on my list of the better emperors of Rome, but like Aurelian, his reign was too short to have the kind of impact that Trajan or Augustus had. Who knows what could have happened if they had reigned for longer. I guess it kind of worked out in the end though with Diocletian. Now, after this tragic story, please show your coins of Probus! I’d love to see them.