Iberian coinage with horseman (jinete) Iberian Horseman (jinete) Ancient Iberian peninsula. Iberian coinage started around the fifth century BC, but widespread minting and circulation in the Iberian peninsula did not begin until late in the third century, during the Second Punic War. Civic coinages - emissions made by individual cities at their own volition - continued under the first two and a half centuries of Roman control until ending in the mid-first century AD. Some non-civic coins were minted on behalf of Roman emperors during this period and continued to be minted after the cessation of the civic coinages. After the cessation of the civic coinages, these Imperial coins were the only coins minted in Iberia until the coins of the Suebi and Visigoths. Part of the Second Punic War was fought in the Iberian Peninsula and coins were used by combatants on all sides. This led to a widespread and dramatic increase in the number of places where coins were minted and the amount of coin in circulation. To fund their war effort, the Carthaginians minted gold, electrum, silver and bronze coins. These coins may have been minted in the Barcid 'capital' of Carthago Nova or perhaps were minted simply in Carthaginian military camps. After this war, and the subsequent Roman annexation of much of the Iberian Peninsula, many indigenous towns and a few Roman colonial towns minted civic coins over the second and early first centuries. The indigenous towns in Hispania Citerior minted coins with Iberian scripts and either Iberian or Celtiberian legends. These coins were often typically similar, with a heroic male portrait on the obverse and a horseman on the reverse - the so-called "jinete" (horseman) coins. The areas in which coins were minted and circulating expanded as Roman control was spread into the interior of the Peninsula. The legends and iconography on coins from Hispania Ulterior were more diverse, with Latin legends common but also some Iberian scripts (a system of 28 syllabic and alphabetic characters) while Punic continued to be used in the old Phoenician colonies along the south coast. Coins from this era are often called Iberian coins, the numbers of towns minting peaked in the last third of the second century and early first century, and then declined rapidly from around the mid-first century BC, the number of towns emitting coins decreased and Latin legends were standardized throughout the Peninsula. Coins were mainly now emitted by more important towns that had received privileged juridical status from victorious Roman generals in the Civil Wars and then from the new Julio-Claudian emperors Augustus and Tiberius. Many of the coins emitted proclaim the new status of emitting towns as Roman coloniae or municipia, and individual civic iconography was used with strong similarities to that used in other Roman provinces and media. These emissions are conventionally called (Roman) Provincial coins.