Featured Pisidian Antioch

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Roman Collector, Jul 19, 2020.

  1. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Post your coins of Pisidian Antioch or anything you feel is relevant!

    Pisidian Antioch was one of many cities named Antioch founded by Seleucus I (312-280 BC) or his son Antiochus I (280-261 BC). It was not truly in Pisidia, which was the mountainous region separating Pamphylia from Phrygia to the north. Antioch, strictly speaking, stood in the eastern part of Phrygia, which was later incorporated into the Roman province of Galatia. The geographer Strabo, writing in the early years of Tiberius’ reign, named the city Antioch towards Pisidia, to distinguish it from another Antioch on the Meander River in Caria.[1]

    Heinrich_Kiepert._Pisidian_Antioch.jpg
    From "Asia citerior," Auctore Henrico Kiepert Berolinensi. Geographische Verlagshandlung Dietrich Reimer (Ernst Vohsen) Berlin, Wilhemlstr. 29. (1903). David Rumsey Historical Map Collection.

    Scanty ruins of the city lie approximately 1 km northeast of Yalvaç. The ruins include some arches of an aqueduct that brought in water from the snow-capped mountains to the east, the walls of the city, a theater, a temple to Augustus, and a temple to the Anatolian god, Mên, the god of the indigenous Phrygian people.[2]

    Capture 2.JPG
    Ancient temple ruins at Antioch of Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey. © Valery Shanin/Shutterstock.com (Photo from Encyclopædia Brittanica).

    According to Strabo[3], colonists from Magnesia on the Maeander were brought in by the Seleucids to found the city. In 39 BC, Marc Antony gave the colony, its surrounding territory, and the whole of Pisidia to Amyntas, the king of Galatia. But when Amyntas was killed in 25 BC fighting an incursion by indigenous Homonadesians from the mountains, the whole kingdom passed to the Romans and became the province of Galatia.[4]

    As Antioch was situated on the strategically important road from Ephesus to Syria, Augustus founded a Roman colony there in about 20 BC, bringing to the city veterans of the Skylark (Alauda) legion.[5] The colony was honored with the title of Caesarea and given the right of the Ius Italicum.[6]

    Coinage began under Augustus in the tens BC,[7] and bronze coins of three sizes (RPC I, 3529-31) depict the foundation of the city (the usual togate figure plowing with two oxen) on the obverse and two legionary eagles between two standards on the reverse.

    Capture 1.JPG
    RPC I, 3531

    No more coins were issued by the city until the reign of Nero (see, for example, RPC I, 3532).[8] Coins from the reign of Antoninus Pius onward were in production more or less continuously through the reign of Claudius II.[9]

    The cult worship of Mên was important to the people of the city, though he was not the principal deity of Anatolia. He was always subordinate to the Great Mother (Kybele) who was to the Phrygian people the embodiment of the divine nature.[10] Mên was, like many lunar deities, depicted with the crescent moon emerging from his shoulders, and often with his foot upon a ram’s or bull’s head, echoing the imagery of both Sabazios, the "Thracian Hero" and Mithraism[11]:

    Capture 3.JPG
    Image from "Sabazios and the Phrygian Moon-God 'Men',"[11].

    The coins depict the cult statue of Mên as it appeared in the local temple (see RPC VII.2, — (unassigned; ID 3501), a standing figure wearing a Phrygian cap and with a crescent on his shoulders, holding a scepter and a Victoriola. His left foot rests on a bucranium; a rooster appears at his feet. The bull and the rooster were the sacred animals of Mên; this was also a sacrificial bird in the Persian cults of Mithras and Ahura-Mazda, suggesting an Indo-Persian origin of this cult and the association of Mên with Mithras.[12]

    The letters S R begin to appear on the coins during the reign of Septimius Severus. At first they occurred only on coins of sestertius size, but they appear during the reign of Gordian III on smaller size, and from that time, on all the coins alike. These letters reflect the title of Socia Romanorum, the Latin translation of the Greek σύμμαχος Ῥωμαίων, meaning "ally of the Romans." This embodied the notion of Antioch's status as an independent city with continued loyalty to Rome during a century of increasing military pressure on the empire. In material terms, this meant the city sent recruits, provisions, and equipment to the armies on the eastern frontier.[13]

    Gordian III Antioch in Pisidia Men.jpg
    Gordian III, AD 238-244.
    Roman Provincial Æ 35 mm, 26.72 g, 6 h.
    Pisidia, Antioch, AD 238-244.
    Obv: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III, r., seen from rear.
    Rev: COL CAES ANTIOCH, S-R, Mên standing r., wearing Phrygian cap, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Victory (standing r., on globe, holding trophy), resting elbow on column; behind his shoulders, crescent; to l., rooster standing, l.
    Refs: RPC VII.2, — (unassigned; ID 3431); Krzyżanowska XXII/94; BMC xix.187, 70.


    Another frequently encountered reverse type depicts the genius of the colony, depicted as a female figure resembling in her attributes Tyche, but holding a branch instead of a rudder.

    Domna Antioch in Pisidia.jpg
    Julia Domna, AD 193-217.
    Roman provincial Æ 22.4 mm, 5.76 g, 5 h.
    Pisidia, Antioch, AD 196-211.
    Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: ANTIOCH GE-NI COL CAES, Genius of Antioch wearing kalathos or modius on head, standing facing, head left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
    Refs: BMC xix.181, 34-36; SNG BnF 1126-31; Lindgren I, 1211.


    Other common reverse types include a goddess holding a caduceus and cornucopia sometimes referred to as Pax, as well as numerous legionary standard and eagle types.

    ~~~

    1. Lewis, Peter, and Ron Bolden. The Pocket Guide to Saint Paul: Coins Encountered by the Apostle on His Travels. Wakefield Press, Australia, 2002, p. 64.

    2. Ibid, p. 64. This temple, with its cult image of Mên, is depicted on coin of Gordian III, RPC VII.2, — (unassigned; ID 3501).

    3. Strabo xii. 577, cited by Hill, G.F. Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia. Trustees of the British Museum, 1897, p. cxii.

    4. "Antioch of Pisidia." Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 15 July 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antioch_of_Pisidia.

    5. Lewis & Bolden, op. cit., p. 65.

    6. Hill, G.F. Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia. Trustees of the British Museum, 1897, p. cxii.

    7. Butcher, Kevin. Roman Provincial Coins: an Introduction to the Greek Imperials. Vol. 1, Seaby, 1988, p. 541.

    8. Lewis & Bolden, op. cit., p. 66.

    9. Hill, op. cit., pp. 177-201.

    10. Ramsay, Sir William Mitchell, and Dale memorial lectures 1907. The Cities of St. Paul Their Influence on His Life and Thought. The Cities of Eastern Asia Minor. A.C. Armstrong, 1908, p. 287.

    11. Religion, / Atlantic. "Sabazios and the Phrygian Moon-God 'Men'." The Atlantic Religion, 10 Mar. 2015, atlanticreligion.com/2014/08/13/sabazios-and-the-phrygian-moon-god-men/.

    12. Saprykin, Sergej Ju. "The Religion and Cults of the Pontic Kingdom: Political Aspects," in Mithridates VI and the Pontic Kingdom (Højte, Jakob Munk, ed.). Aarhus University Press, 2009, p. 260.

    13. Mitchell, Stephen, et al. Pisidian Antioch: the Site and Its Monuments. Duckworth, 1998, p. 11.
     
    Last edited: Jul 22, 2020
  2. Avatar

    Guest User Guest



    to hide this ad.
  3. physics-fan3.14

    physics-fan3.14 You got any more of them.... prooflikes? Supporter

    Great writeup! It must have gotten confusing having a bunch of towns with the same name!
     
  4. Bing

    Bing Illegitimi non carborundum Supporter

    PHILIP I 5.jpg
    PHILIP I
    AE24
    OBVERSE: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
    REVERSE: ANTIO-C H-ICOL to left and right of vexilium surmounted by eagle, between two legionary eagles, SR in exergue
    Struck at Pisidia, Antiochia, 244-249 AD
    6.91g, 24mm
    SNG France 1259/1262
    PHILIP I 7.JPG
    PHILIP I
    AE25
    OBVERSE: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
    REVERSE: ANTIO-C H-ICOL to left and right of vexilium surmounted by eagle, between two legionary eagles, SR in exergue
    Struck at Pisidia, Antiochia, 244-249 AD
    6.91g, 24mm
    SNG France 1259/1262
     
    svessien, zumbly, ominus1 and 13 others like this.
  5. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Nice examples of the legionary standards reverse types! The Skylark legion that founded the colony was named after the skylark decoration on their helmets.* I know the standard references describe the birds on these legionary standards as eagles, but I wonder if the skylark is actually the species intended.

    *Lewis & Bolden, op. cit., p. 65.
     
    ominus1 likes this.
  6. thejewk

    thejewk Well-Known Member

    Very interesting RC, as always.
     
    galba68 and Roman Collector like this.
  7. Ryro

    Ryro They call me the 13th Caesar Supporter

    Another wonderful Featured thread my man!
    Antioch really had some lovely JDs.
    Here's one of my favs:
    20190327_143818_F4BCC53E-DCE0-4F77-A7CE-06BBC50336F9-469-000000877D14383F.png
    Julia Domna (Augusta) Pisidia, Antiochia. AD.193-217. Æ (21mm, 5.20g). IOYΛIA ΔOMNA AVG. Draped bust right, hair in horizontal waves, large bun on back of the head. / ANTIOCH MENCIS COL. Mên standing right, with foot on bucranium, wearing Phrygian cap, holding long sceptre and Nike; behind his shoulders, crescent; at feet, cock standing left. Krzyzanovska II/5; SNG France 1133 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 39.
     
    zumbly, ominus1, Marsyas Mike and 9 others like this.
  8. ancientone

    ancientone Well-Known Member

    Great write-up! Here's an eagle type.

    Clipboard3~5.jpg Pisidia, Antioch. Geta (Caesar, 198-209). AE18
    Obv: L SEP GE COM CAES. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
    Rev: ANTIOCH COl. Eagle standing facing, head left, with wings spread and wreath in beak.
    SNG AUL 4923
     
  9. Justin Lee

    Justin Lee I learn by doing Supporter

    Very cool info!

    [​IMG]
    Septimius Severus, Ruled 193-211 AD
    AE23, Pisidia, Antioch

    Obverse: L SEPT SE-V AVG IMP P, laureate head of Septimius Severus right.
    Reverse: ANTI-OCH G-ЄNI COL CAЄ, Genius (or god Mên?) wearing modius, standing facing, head left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
    References: SNG Cop 30, Krzyznowska 39 var. (obverse legend, as Krz 43)
    Size: 23mm, 4.2g
     
  10. PeteB

    PeteB Well-Known Member

    An interesting coin:
    GordianIIIAntiochSol.jpg
    Gordian III. 238-244 AD. Antioch, Pisida. Æ36 x 31 mm; 21.22 gm.
    Obv: (IMP CAES) M ANT GORDIAN(US AVG). Laur, dr. and cuirassed bust r.
    Rev. (ANTIOCHIA COLONIA CAESARIA), (S R) in exergue, Sol in quadriga of horses leaping skyward left. Same dies as Krzyzanowska XX/90, pl. XXXVIII, p. 183, a coin known only from this die pair. SNG von Aulock 4962; SNG BN 1230; CNG Research__; acsearch__. Rare.
    Dark green patina. Silver plated in antiquity? Silver visible on reverse and other areas. Edge hammered down to a knife edge at 12 h (Obverse) and possibly mounted in some manner in ancient times, or used as a tool of some sort. Flan crack as a result of flattening/sharpening the top edge?
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2020
  11. PeteB

    PeteB Well-Known Member

    Another extremely rare, and possibly silver plated coin from Antioch, Pisidia:
    JuliaDomnaAntiochSilverPlated.jpg
    Julia Domna. Augusta, 193-217 AD. Antioch. Pisidia. (Æ 33. 24.26 gm). Obv: Draped bust, r. Rev: Julia Domna standing, facing r., clasping hands with Emperor standing, facing left. S - R across field. Unlisted in major references, nor on-line sources. Silver plated in antiquity? Silver evident on her forehead, hair, and letters of her name. A unique special presentation issue? Dark black patina.
     
  12. dougsmit

    dougsmit Member Supporter

    My only coin of Amnytas is this AE24 with Heracles and a lion. When I bought it, I did not realize that the large letter above was a B.

    g61927fd3332.jpg

    My favorite coins of the Pisidean Antioch are Severans.
    Septimius Severus AE22 /Tyche
    pi0870b00313lg.jpg
    Julia Domna AE26 /Men
    pk1150bb1250.jpg
     
  13. Spaniard

    Spaniard Well-Known Member

    @Roman Collector....Very interesting thread as always and found it really informative ...Thanks for putting it together.
     
    Carl Wilmont and Roman Collector like this.
  14. Ed Snible

    Ed Snible Well-Known Member

    Another Geta, this one as Augustus:

    antioch-geta-both.jpg
    PISIDIA, Antioch. Geta, AD 209-211. Æ 33 27.36 g.
    Obv: [IMP] CAES P SEP· ·GETA P AVG; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right as seen from behind
    Rev: COL CAES ANTIOCH / S-R; Mên standing facing, head right, leaning on column top, holding scepter and Nike on globe; cock at side to left.
    Ref: SNG Paris 1161, SNG Von Aulock 8568, BMC 54.
     
  15. curtislclay

    curtislclay Well-Known Member

    PeteB:

    A very interesting large bronze of Domna! Apparently only the third large obv. die recorded for her, and different from the other two in having a small low nest of hair behind her ear, not a large bun covering the whole back of her head. Kryzanowska records what is apparently the same rev. die used also with her obv. XXXI of Caracalla (IMP CAE M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, pl. XXIII) and her obv. XVIII of Geta Augustus (IMP CAES P SEPT GETA AVG, p. 167, first entry on page). Neither of the two togate figures on rev. has a long beard, so they are presumably Caracalla and Geta as joint Augusti, and the coin will date to between Geta's promotion to Augustus late in 209 and his assassination by Caracalla in Dec. 211.

    Roman Collector and others:

    I can't recall author's name or publication, but several months ago I was given a link to a very interesting and I thought convincing article by a known German scholar, proposing that S R on Antioch's coins from Sept. Sev. on stood for Socii or Socia Romanorum, that is Allies or Ally of the Romans.
     
  16. PeteB

    PeteB Well-Known Member

    curtisclay:
    Thank you for the corrections and additions! Much appreciated. Unfortunately, the time lapse precludes me from editing the posting above.
    Accordingly, I have added it below:
    Julia Domna, Augusta. Antioch, Pisidia. (Æ 33. 24.26 gm). Per Curtis Clay, the coin will date to between Geta's promotion to Augustus late in 209 and his assassination by Caracalla in Dec. 211. Obv: Her draped bust, right. Rev: CONCORD AVGUSTOR COL ANTI OCH, Caracalla and Geta, as joint Augusti, clasping hands; S - R across field. Unlisted in major references, nor on-line sources. Silver plated in antiquity? Silver evident on her forehead, hair, and letters of her name. A unique special presentation issue? Dark black patina.
     
  17. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    This coin has been posted before but it fits well with this thread too :).
    SNG France 1211 obv..JPG SNG France 1211 rev..JPG
     
  18. Marsyas Mike

    Marsyas Mike Well-Known Member

    Very interesting write-up. My only Pisidia, Antioch came in a batch of low-grade Roman Provincials.

    I'm not 100% of my attribution. If I am right, it has a decidedly weird portrait of Septimius Severus. If I'm wrong, corrections welcome, as always:

    Septimius Severus - Pisidia AE Lot Dec 2019 (0).jpg

    Septimius Severus Æ 21
    (c. 193-211 A.D.)
    Pisidia. Antioch

    [L SEPT SE]V PER[T AVG IMP], radiate head right / ANT[IOCH F]ORT[VNA CO]LON, Tyche standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
    SNG France 1120; Mionnet Supp. 7, 30.
    (3.68 grams / 21 mm)
     
  19. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Thanks for pointing that out. Some internet research has uncovered that the city received the title Socia Romanorum during the reign of Septimius Severus -- consistent with the numismatic evidence -- and was the Latin translation of σύμμαχος Ῥωμαίων. This embodied the notion of Antioch's status as an independent city with continued loyalty to Rome during a century of increasing military pressure on the empire. In material terms, this meant the city sent recruits, provisions, and equipment to the armies on the eastern frontier.* I have edited my post to reflect the updated information.

    *Mitchell, Stephen, et al. Pisidian Antioch: the Site and Its Monuments. Duckworth, 1998, p. 11.
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2020
    ominus1 likes this.
  20. zumbly

    zumbly Ha'ina 'ia mai ana ka puana Supporter

    Excellent writeup, RC!

    caracalla pisidia400.jpg CARACALLA
    AE33. 27.03g, 33mm. PISIDIA, Antiochia, circa AD 198-217. Krzyzanovska dies XXVII/–; SNG France 1173-4 var. (arrangement of rev. legend; same obv die). O: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. R: COL CAES ANTIOCH, S-R across fields, Mên standing facing, head right, left foot on bucranium, leaning on low cippus, holding sceptre and Nike on a globe, rooster standing left.
    Ex Malter XLIV (29 May 1990), lot 1149
     
  21. Al Kowsky

    Al Kowsky Supporter! Supporter

    Wayne Sayles writes in his book Roman Provincial Coins, "Large sestertius-sized issues of Septimius Severus, and later rulers, bear the letters SR which apparently stand for Senatus Romanus."
     
    benhur767 and Roman Collector like this.
Draft saved Draft deleted

Share This Page