AVGVSTVS - bare head of Augustus right / CA (within laurel wreath) Orichalcum Sestertius, Pergamum 27-23 BC 34 mm / 24,91 gr RIC 501; Cohen 791; BMCRE 713; RPC 2233; Howgego, “Coinage and Military Finance: the Imperial Bronze Coinage of the Augustan East”, in NC 1982, p. 7, Class 2a, pl. 1, 9 ex Savoca Online Auction 88, 25.10.2020, lot 228 The exact meaning of the "CA" on this coinage, which included Asses, Dupondii, and the first orichalcum Sestertii, is not known. RPC suggests that C(aesar) A(ugustus) is perhaps the best explanation, although it could also stand for C(aesare) A(uctoritate). Some believe that CA is a representation of honorific wreaths to Augustus by the stabilised (C)ommunitas (A)siae. This CA in wreath type circulated in Asia and also in Cyprus and Northern Syria but is thought to be attributable to the mint at Pergamum. Following the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Augustus returned to Italy via Asia, most likely personally sanctioning at Pergamum the temple dedicated to himself and Rome. At the end of the civil war, Augustus sought to restore peace to the empire and to reinforce her frontiers. This was achieved by establishing diplomatic relations with the surrounding rulers, and the placement of Agrippa as proconsul of Asia Minor once Augustus had returned to Rome in 19 BC. Augustus spent the winter 21/20 BC on the island of Samos, opposite Ephesus, and travelled the province of Asia in the spring of 20 BC. According to Dio he then travelled north to Cyzicus and southeast to Syria. The coinage circulating in Asia may have well have inspired him to introduce orichalcum Sestertii in Rome as well, namely the influential series featuring the great altar of Lugdunum and portraits of Augustus and his successor Tiberius: TI CAESAR AVGVSTI F IMPERATOR V - bare head of Tiberius left / ROM ET AVG - The great Altar of Roma and Augustus at Lugdunum, flanked by columns surmounted by statues of Victory right and left, the altar ornamented with row of uncertain objects along the top and three wreaths on the front panel. Ochichalcum Sestertius, Lugdunum AD 10-11 (under Augustus) 36,43 mm / 22,06 gr RIC (Augustus) 240; BMCRE (Augustus) 572-3; CBN (Augustus) 1737; Cayon (Los Sestercios del Imperio Romano) 4; Cohen 28; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1753 Back in 38 BC Augustus, then still known as Caesar Divi Filius, had already introduced a prototype series of large bronze portrait coins, albeit made of reddish copper onstead of the yellow Orichalcum usually associated with Sestertii of the first Century AD: CAESAR DIVI F - bare head of Octavian right DIVOS IVLIVS - wreathed head of Julius Caesar right Bronze Sestertius (?), southern Italy, 38 b.C. 30,21 mm / 19,71 gr RPC 620; Crawford 535/1; Sear (Roman Imperators) 308; FITA, pp. 49-50 and pl. i, 14; Sydenham 1335; BMCRR Gaul 106; Babelon Julia 98-9; Cohen I, p. 22, 3. The last Sestertii featuring the portrait of Rome´s first Princeps were the largest AE denomination of the "Restitution" issue struck by the 13th Caesar, Nerva: DIVVS AVGVSTUS – Laureate head of Augustus right IMP NERVA CAES AVGVSTVS REST around large S C Sestertius, Rome 96 a.D. 34 mm / 20,4 gr Cohen 570, Sear 3076, RIC (Nerva) 136, BMC (Nerva) 149, CBN (Nerva) 141 My gallery of the various Sestertius emissions of and for Augustus is only of budget quality, but high grade large portrait bronzes of his will cost a fortune. Please show your Augustan Sestertii (with or without portrait) and let me know if you have any further information about the CA issue!