Regno of Southern Italy during William's kingship is something a little special to me. I wrote my doctoral thesis on the military recruitment practices (and to a lesser extent the taxation practices) of twelfth century England, comparing it to the Regno of Southern Italy, for the purposes of seeing what impact on these two areas could firmly be attributed to the Normans (Spoiler: not much). One of the remarkable coincidences of the two regions is that they both created a survey of knight service in roughly the same time period. In England, it was the Cartae Baronum under Henry II in 1166, and in Southern Italy, the Catalogus Baronum initially under Roger II in 1150-1, but revised under William II in 1167-8. The Counties and Duchies of Norman Italy. Wikipedia Commons The knight survey for Southern Italy only took into account the Duchy of Apulia and Principality Capua. This could be because a similar survey had already been conducted for the old Greek and Muslim regions of Calabria and Sicily, because there was already a Muslim run financial department called the ad-dīwān al-ma’mūr. The Normans were also clearly utilizing the old Muslim office of the dīwān, particularly when they create a later section to this department called the duana baronum, or σέκρετον τών άποκοπών; accounting for a Latin name (for the Normans) and a Greek name for the native Greeks, but no Arabic name (there would even be an order that all Greek and Arabic documents be translated into Latin so that the new Norman officials could use them...). Anyway, this clear use of pre-existing Muslim practices in administration is clearly reflected on the coins of Norman Sicily, and seen in my new coin (I've included the seller's photos since it capture's the coin's color better than my own": Norman Kingdom of Sicily William II, r. 1166-1189 A.D. Messina Mint, AE Follaro 16.7mm x 1.7 grams Obv.: + OPERATAT IN VRBE MESSANE outside, O / REX W / SCOVS in center (OV ligate) Rev.: Arabic legend"al'malik / Ghulyalim / al-thani" (King William 2nd) in center, "bi-amr al-malik al-musta'izz" around edge Ref.: MEC Italy III 401 ff., Biaggi 1233 There are other financial connections between Southern Italy and England at this time, most notably Thomas Brown who served at the dīwān under Roger II, but after Roger's death would find employment at the Exchequer in England under Henry II. While Thomas Brown is recorded in several records, his role is firmly explained in the Dialogus de Scaccario written by Richard Fitz Nigel (hence my username) during the reign of Richard I in England. To bring it full circle, here's my Richard I coin again: England Richard I, r. 1189-1199 A.D. London Mint, AR Short Cross Penny 18mm x 1.8 grams Obv.: henricus Rex; Rev.: _ _ _ ard . on . Lund (Ricard, London) Ref.: Seaby 1347 Okay, I've taken up enough of your time - Any Norman, Sicilian, English, or 12th century coins in general I would love to see!