I recently got the first coin which helps tell a good story. Coins of Maximian, co-Augustus (286-305) with Diocletian, often have the simple legend "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG". After Maximian retired May 1, 305, Galerius, whose full name included "MAXIMIANVS", began to use that exact same legend previously used by Maximian. So, when Maximian returned to power during his "second reign" (307-308) that legend referred to Galerius, not Maximian. So, Constantine minted for Maximian using a longer version of his name to distinguish Maximian from Galerius. The first coin shows the longer version and the rest of this post explains how this all happened. Maximian, recognized as Augustus at a mint (Trier) of Constantine. 27-25 mm. 7.18 grams. IMP C M AVREL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Pius Felix Augustus Note the remarkably long version of his name which makes it clear this is not a coin of Galerius. GENIO POP ROM Altar in left field PLG in exergue RIC Trier 766 "autumn 307 - end of 308." In this issue Constantine and Maxentius are also Augusti. Galerius and Maximinus II are omitted. The Roman emperors we call Maximian and Galerius had similar names. Maximian was Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus and Galerius was Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus. We use "Maximian" or "Maximianus" for the first, so scholars have chosen to use a different name, Galerius, for the second. (Maybe he could have been called Maximianus II, but he is not.) It is common for emperors to use longer versions of their names on their first coin issues and shorter versions after they were well known. Maximian became Augustus in 286, long before Galerius was elevated to Caesar in 293, so Maximian had first dibs on the name "Maximianus." Coins of Galerius as Caesar usually have "GAL" as well as "CAES" to distinguish them. After Maximian retired (under pressure from Diocletian) in May 305, retirement types were issued for him as "DN MAXIMIANVS PF S AVG", with "DN" for "Dominus Noster" (Our Lord) and "S" for Senior (sort of like emeritus is for professors). The name MAXIMIANVS for an active emperor was freed up to be used by the new Augustus who we call Galerius (but he called himself Maximianus). Here is an example: Galerius (not Maximian) Struck at Trier, a mint of Constantine. 26 mm. 6.63 grams. IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG In spite of this legend, it is a coin of Galerius, not Maximian. This is clear from both the portrait (which does not have the nose of Maximian) and the co-rulers in the same issue. GENIO POP ROM S A across field PTR in exergue RIC VI Trier 714. "c. summer 307". This group is shared by Galerius with Constantine as Caesar, Maximinus II as Caesar, and, according to RIC, half-folles of Maximian with this exact same legend! The portrait looks like Galerius rather than Maximian and it is from Trier, apparently before Maximian began his second reign. RIC and I both attribute it to Galerius, not to the second reign of Maximian. In late 306 Maximian was invited out of retirement by his son Maxentius who had usurped power in Rome. At first Constantine, now only Caesar, went half way to recognizing this event by minting for Maximian with his retired titles "DN" and "S" but with that GENIO POP ROM reverse type which was not a retirement reverse. Maximian 25-24 mm. 6.61 grams. DN MAXIMIANO P F S AVG (notice the distinctive nose and the dative case) GENIO POP ROM PLN RIC London 90 "c. summer 307" In 307 Maximian and Constantine came to an agreement where each recognized the other as (active) Augustus. But that was now awkward on the coins. Galerius was already using the name "MAXIMIANVS", so what name could Maximian use? Well, Constantine minted for him with a long version of his name. Maximian's titles were changed back to "IMP ... AVG" (which he had used before retirement) and the legend greatly expanded to include "M AVREL VAL". See the first coin. For much more about retirement types, see my page: http://augustuscoins.com/ed/tetrarchy/retirement.html Show us anything relevant, perhaps a coin of another emperor with a legend giving longer name than usual.