Marquisat de Provence. Raymond V (1148-1194; also Comte de Toulouse). Obv. Crescent and star, pellets above and below. +R. COMES (Count Raymond.) Rev. Cross pometée (Duplessy's word), 'coupant la légende' (thank you, more Duplessy). (In angles: ) D ... V ... X ... M. ('Dux Marchie;' 'Duke of the March,' or Marquis.) The counts of Toulouse (who issued the memorable series in their home county) fell into the neighboring, more northerly part of Provence (called a 'Margraviate' in this map) early in the 12th century. The elaborate reverse cross is the coat of arms of the counts of Toulouse. http://www.midi-france.info/19_toulouse.htm Culturally, it was a brilliant part of the world. Thanks largely to troubadour lyrics, Occitan literature was seeing its first flowering. --As such, easily as early as that other triumph of medieval European vernacular, the Icelandic sagas. ...But now I might have to post some more stuff (all 12th-13th c.), from the Comte de Provence, Aragon, and the rest of the more or less immediate neighborhood. --That was a threat!