Jupiter the Preserver

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Curtisimo, Feb 3, 2018.

  1. Curtisimo

    Curtisimo the Great(ish) Supporter

    A very common reverse type on Roman coins from the late 3rd and 4th centuries is the IOVI CONSERVATORI type (which roughly translates to Jupiter the Preserver). With all the upheaval of the late 3rd century it is not surprising that the defensive aspect of Jupiter as the guarantor of the Roman state would be emphasized.

    There seems to be a lot of variants to the reverse imagery of this type with Jupiter holding a globe / Victory / a lighting bolt and standing next to an eagle / wreath / captive or a combination of any of the above. The variants would make for an interesting sub-collection.

    Below is a coin I bought in 2017 but have not gotten around to photographing or posting until now. It's certainly not going to win any beauty contests but I still like it.
    Roman Empire
    Constantine I, AD 306-337
    AE Follis, Cyzicus mint, 6th officina, struck ca. 313-315
    Dia.: 21 mm
    Wt.: 3.8 g
    Obv.: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG; Laureate head right
    Rev.: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI; Jupiter standing left, holding globe surmounted by Victory in right hand, holding scepter in left hand; eagle holding wreath in beak at left; S // SMK
    Ref.: RIC VII 3

    Ex JAZ Numismatics

    This next coin is one I have posted before and is roughly contemporary to the above. It shows the same details as Constantine's coin.
    Roman Empire
    Licinius I
    AE Follis, Thessalonica mint, struck ca. AD 312-313
    Obv.: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG; Laureate bust left
    Rev.: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGGNN; Jupiter standing left, holding globe surmounted by Victory in right hand, holding scepter in left hand; eagle holding wreath in beak at left; / TS A
    Ref.: RIC VI 59

    Here is a statue of Jupiter from ca. AD 100 on display at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia. The bronze eagle, scepter, globe and Victory were all added in the 1800s and were likely influenced by the coin imagery.

    Here is a painting found at Pompeii showing many of the same themes.

    Please post your variants of the IOVI CONSERVATORI type or any coins showing Jupiter!
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  3. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Nice write up!


    Aurelian IOVI CONSER Antoninianus.jpg
    Aurelian, AD 270-275
    Roman billon antoninianus; 4.28 gm, 23.3 mm
    Siscia, issue 6, AD 272-274
    Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust, right
    Rev: IOVI CONSER, emperor standing r., holding short scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding long scepter; *T in exergue
    Refs: RIC 225; MER/RIC temp 2210; Cohen 108.

    The iconography on this one has it all! Eagles, scepters, Victory on globe--the works! Licinius I:

    Licinius I IOVI CONSERVATORI follis Antioch.jpg
    Licinius I, AD 308-324
    Roman billon follis; 3.43 g, 19.1 mm, 11 h
    Antioch, AD 321-323
    Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right
    Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped scepter, another eagle to feet to left, captive seated on ground to right; X/IIΓ in field, right; SMANTS in exergue.
    Refs: RIC vii, p. 682, 35; Cohen 74; RCV 15225.

    Licinius II:

    Licinius II IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS follis Antioch.jpg
    Licinius II, Caesar, AD 317-324
    Roman Æ follis; 17.55 mm, 3.36 gm, 5 h
    Antioch, AD 317-318
    Obv: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, laureate bust, left, holding mappa in the right hand and globe and scepter in left
    Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe; resting on scepter; at left, captive. SMANT in exergue, H in field, right
    Refs: RIC 29; RCV 15415.
  4. chrsmat71

    chrsmat71 I LIKE TURTLES!

    I'll add a couple of my favorites....



    Constantine I

    100_5373 - Copy.JPG
  5. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Then there's Jupiter's wife who, in her role as patron goddess and protector of Rome, was known as Juno Conservatrix. Here she is with her usual accoutrements, a peacock, a patera, and a scepter:

    Mamaea IVNO CONSERVATRIX Denarius.jpg
    Julia Mamaea, AD 222-235
    Roman AR denarius; 3.62 g, 20.5 mm, 6 h
    Rome, AD 222, first emission
    Obv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, bare-headed and draped bust, right
    Rev: IVNO CONSERVATRIX, Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter; peacock at feet, left
    Refs: RIC 343; BMCRE 43; Cohen 35; RCV 8212; CRE 504
  6. Smojo

    Smojo dreamliner

    Gordian III
    RIC 84

    Gordian III
    RIC 2

    Attached Files:

    Last edited: Feb 3, 2018
  7. Curtisimo

    Curtisimo the Great(ish) Supporter

    Very cool @Roman Collector . I've not seen one of these with the eagle AND the captive. Great coins

    Nice. Your Constantine's Jupiter has done so many crunches he's got a 12 pack :smuggrin::D

    Great GIIIs @Smojo !
    Severus Alexander likes this.
  8. Ancient Aussie

    Ancient Aussie Supporter! Supporter

    Very nice Constantine Follis, and love those pastel colours the Romans used in their paintings, is that Pompeii painting housed in the Naples museum.
    Curtisimo likes this.
  9. Curtisimo

    Curtisimo the Great(ish) Supporter

    That is correct. I look forward to going back to Naples and the museum there in a few months!
    Ancient Aussie likes this.
  10. Ancient Aussie

    Ancient Aussie Supporter! Supporter

    I envy you I could have spent another half day there but to tight a schedule, did you check out the naughty room the last time you were there?
    Curtisimo likes this.
  11. zumbly

    zumbly Ha'ina 'ia mai ana ka puana Supporter


    Great writeup, as usual, Curtis. Here are some of my Licinius folles of the IOVI CONSERVATORI type from various mints, chronologically arranged.

    Nicomedia mint, AD 311. No eagle, fancy drapery.
    Licinius I - Iovi Nicomedia c 311 heavy.jpg

    Thessalonica mint, AD 313-316. With eagle.
    Licinius - Iovi TSG 781.jpg

    Rome mint, AD 317-318. Holding thunderbolt, no eagle. 'Jupiter standing' is a very common type for Licinius, but Rome mint issues are very rare.
    Licinius - Jupiter Rome Rare 2401.jpg

    Antioch mint, AD 317-320. Not in RIC, unlisted officina.
    Licinius - Iovi ANT 2427.jpg

    Alexandria mint, AD 321-324. Jupiter with eagle and captive. Retariffing issue.
    Licinius - Iovi SMALA 1298.jpg
  12. Curtisimo

    Curtisimo the Great(ish) Supporter

    Hahaha yes there are some rather strange pieces of art in that collection. The satyr statue was aparently more than 19th century audiences could handle!
    Ancient Aussie likes this.
  13. Curtisimo

    Curtisimo the Great(ish) Supporter

    Beautiful coins as always Z. I especially like the Rome mint Licinius. A really nice portrait with a great patina.
  14. Severus Alexander

    Severus Alexander find me at NumisForums Supporter

    Nice coins & nice writeup. That Hermitage Jupiter is impressive, I don't think I've seen it before.

    Here are my favourite IOVI CONSERVATORI:
    Screen Shot 2018-02-03 at 10.03.57 PM.jpg
    Screen Shot 2018-02-03 at 10.04.11 PM.jpg
    Screen Shot 2018-02-03 at 10.04.25 PM.jpg

    And here's another favourite Jupiter, on both obverse and reverse (L. Scipio Asiagenus, 106 BCE):
    Screen Shot 2018-02-03 at 10.04.41 PM.jpg
    dlhill132, RAGNAROK, Ajax and 9 others like this.
  15. randygeki

    randygeki Coin Collector

  16. Eduard

    Eduard Supporter**

    Great post, and a pleasure to read, Curtisimo!

    I have only two bronzes which refer to, or portray a statue of Jupiter:

    TRAJAN. 98-117 AD. Æ Sestertius (35mm, 22.78 gm). Struck circa 104-107 AD. Laureate bust right, wearing aegis / Triumphal arch of Trajan, consisting of a massive base, with gateposts and gateway under central arch, with elaborate superstructures;
    on the sides of the base, bas-reliefs from top to bottom on each side; panels either side of pediment; the pediment contains Jupiter and the panels each contain a quadriga racing inwards; the frieze on the roof is inscribed IOM(= Iovi Optimo Maximo), atop of which, is a six-horse chariot driven by Jupiter and escorted by two Victories; to either side trophies. RIC II 572; Cohen 547. Near VF, green patina.

    Trajan Sestertius ARCH IOM - OBV - 1.jpg Trajan Sestertius ARCH IOM - REV - 1.jpg

    Trajan. AD 98-117. Æ As. Rome mint. Struck circa AD 107-111. Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder / Octastyle temple with portico on either side; within temple, figure of Jupiter seated facing; sculptural figures adorning architrave and roof. RIC II 577.
    Trajan As Jupiter Temple-OBV - 1.jpg Trajan As Jupiter Temple-REV - 1.jpg
  17. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Although struck in Sebaste, Samaria, this coin depicts the Capitoline Triad: Juno, Jupiter, and Athena. I am struck by the resemblance between Jupiter's pose on this coin and in the statue in the Hermitage posted above:

    Soaemias Sebaste Temple.jpg
    Jupiter Hermitage.jpg
  18. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE

    I had no clue that I had all these from the Imperial Period. I also have beau coup Jupiters from the Republican Era also.


    RI Diocletian Ӕ Quinarius 1.46g 16mm Rome AD 284-305 IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter stndng thunderbolt sceptre RARE RIC 193

    RI Vespasian 69-79 CE AR Denarius Jupiter Sacrificing IOVI CONSERVAT.jpg
    RI Vespasian 69-79 CE AR Denarius Jupiter Sacrificing IOVI CONSERVAT

    RI Aurelian 270-275 CE AE Ant receiving Globe from Jupiter.jpg
    RI Aurelian 270-275 CE AE Ant receiving Globe from Jupiter IOVI CONSER

    RI Licinius II 317-324 CE Folles Jupiter w Eagle sinister left Antioch
  19. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE

    I agree. Those are great looking Denarii!

    RR L Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus Asiagenus AR Serrate Denarius 4.0g 19mm Rome 106 BCE Hd Jupiter l - Jupiter quad r scepter tbolt L•SCIP•ASIAG B Cr 311-1e Syd 576

    And some more of my favorite IUPITER Republicans:

    RR AR Quinarius 16mm 1.77g P Sabinus Rome 99 BCE Jupiter r E 3 pellets - P SABINE Q in ex Victory trophy E 3 pellets Cr 331-1

    RR Anon AR Drachm Half Quadrigatus 225-212 BCE 3.1g 18mm Janus dotted border Jupiter in Quadriga LEFT Victory ROMA Cr 28-4 S 35 SCARCE

    RR AR Denarius 3.85g L Antestius Gragulus 136 BCE Rome mint Roma Jupiter quadriga tbolt Cr 238-1 Syd 451

    RR M Vargunteius 130 BCE AR Denarius Roma Jupiter slow Biga Sear 133 Craw 257-1

    RR Anon Quadrigatus Janus 225-215 BCE Cr 28-3 Sear 31.jpg
    RR Anon AR DiDrachm / Quadrigatus Janus - Jupiter in Quadriga 225-215 BCE Cr 28-3 Sear 31

    Samnium Aesernia 263-240 BC AE 20 Vulcan Pilos Tongs Jupiter Biga.jpg
    Samnium Aesernia 263-240 BC AE 20 Vulcan Pilos Tongs Jupiter Biga

    RI Civil War Revolt of Vindex CE 68-69 AR Denarius ROMA RESTITVTA - IVPITER LIBERATOR Jupiter seated r Tbolt Scepter 17mm 3.02g RIC I 62 RSC 374-RARE
  20. ancientone

    ancientone Well-Known Member

    Licinius I. AE Follis. 315 AD. Alexandria.

    Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
    Rev: IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath left. Wreath over H over N in right field. Mintmark ALE. RIC VII Alexandria 10, R2.
  21. Victor_Clark

    Victor_Clark all my best friends are dead Romans Dealer


    A.D. 285
    21x23mm 2.9gm
    IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG; radiate and cuirassed bust left.
    IOVI CONSERVAT; Jupiter stg. l., holding thunderbolt and sceptre; before him, small figure of Diocletian .
    In ex. QXXIT
    RIC V Ticinum 220 var.

    not listed in RIC for the bust left.
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