Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Roman Collector, May 25, 2020.
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Interesting observations, but I'm afraid you are mistranslating parts of Trajan's legend.
SPQR on the reverse is the subject of the legend, so is in the nominative case, as we can see from Marsyas Mike's coin above, where it is written out SENATVS POPVLVSQUE ROMANVS.
The dative case of Trajan's name and titles is not the dative of agent, but the standard dative of dedication or indirect object, yielding this translation: "The Senate and the Roman People (dedicate this coin to, or express their veneration for) Trajan," with his various titles.
That the dative case of Trajan's name and titles is dependent on the subject SPQR at the end of the legend is evident from Trajan's earlier coins of 112, on which Trajan's name reverts to the nominative case whenever SPQR is omitted from the reverse legend, as for example with the type DIVVS PATER TRAIAN.
Thank you so much for your comments, @curtislclay and for supplying some important context for interpreting the legends on these coins.
Of course, the inscriptions consist only of abbreviations and all of the inflectional endings are lost, so it's impossible without additional context to identify the nominative subject or to do proper exegesis of the dative case.
You have provided essential context -- that SPQR is in the nominative -- by comparing its usage here to other coins in which the full inflectional endings are used. Knowing that SPQR is in the nominative, it must be the subject of the sentence and the dative must therefore be a dative of advantage.
I have edited and corrected the relevant sections of the OP so as not to mislead readers who come across this thread in the future.
As to further context, I don't think anyone has ever doubted the meaning of Trajan's common reverse legend SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, where SPQR is clearly the subject so in the nominative case, while OPTIMO PRINCIPI is in the dative case and is apparently an indirect object, defined thus by Google: "a noun phrase referring to someone or something that is affected by the action of a transitive verb (typically as a recipient), but is not the primary object (e.g. him in give him the book )."
...anyway...i'll post the Trajan denauius of JAZ n i's (the Rablle ll overstrike) in 'The 5(6) Good Emperors in silver...back to the hunt
Separate names with a comma.