India Mughal Empire - My First Square Rupee of Akbar (and a question about digits)

Discussion in 'World Coins' started by Marsyas Mike, Aug 29, 2021.

  1. Marsyas Mike

    Marsyas Mike Well-Known Member

    I've been wanting one of these for a while, and finally landed one, a square rupee of Akbar the Great, Mughal India. They are pretty common, but I was waiting, as always for a cheap one.

    Here it is:

    India - Mughal Akbar sqare Rupee Aug 2021 (0).jpg

    Attribution seems to be fairly straightforward, KM 82.1. But I am puzzled by the date (on the reverse). Here it is: ٩٩٤

    India - Mughal Akbar sqare Rupee Aug 2021 (0det).jpg

    My question has to do with the last digit: ٤ (a backward 3 in Western Arabic numerals). Is that a 4 or a 5? I've looked at several online sites, auctions, etc. and ٩٩٤ is shown as either 994 or 995. There doesn't seem to be a clear consensus, which surprises me. Or am I missing something? My ignorance in these matters is near-complete! :bucktooth:

    Wikipedia article on Eastern Arabic Numerals shows variation 4 = ٤ for "Eastern Arabic" versus ۴(Persian) or ۴ (Urdu).

    But here is an authoritative-looking auction stating this is a 5:

    Any help much appreciated. And share those Mughal rupees, square or otherwise.
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  3. Mat

    Mat Ancient Coincoholic

    Nice addition. I was happy to get mine too, but it got little interest on here.

    Nice to see someone appreciate coinage of his.

    @Amit Vyas should be able to help you with your questions.

    Jalal al-Din Muhammad Akbar (963-1014 AH / 1556 - 1605 A.D.)
    INDIA, Mughal Empire
    AR Rupee
    Dated AH987
    Dar al-Sultanate Ahmedabad Mint
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  4. Marsyas Mike

    Marsyas Mike Well-Known Member

    Nice one, Mat. And an easily-interpreted date too! Keep posting them - maybe we can bring about a "Mughal Invasion" of Coin Talk! :)
  5. Mat

    Mat Ancient Coincoholic

    Not all Mughal.

    (Top row, left to right)
    1. Mughal, Shah Jahan (AH1037-1068, 1628-1658 AD), AR Rupee, Lahore mint, AH1066/RY 30.
    2. Indian Princely States, Baroda, Khande Rao (AH1273-1287/AD1856-1870), AR rupee.
    3. Mughal, Aurangzeb Alamgir (AH1068-1118, 1658-1707 AD), AR Rupee, Surat mint, AH1090/Ry 23

    (Bottom row, left to right)
    1. Mughal, Aurangzeb Alamgir (AH1068-1118, 1658-1707 AD), AR Rupee, Surat mint, AH1102/Ry 34
    2. British India. 1840 is a frozen year.
    3. Indian Princely States, Indore, AR fractional rupee.
  6. Parthicus

    Parthicus Well-Known Member

    To quote from Richard Plant's invaluable book "Arabic Coins and How to Read Them", p.8:

    "One other fact must be noted, that in the 800's and 900's A.H. Indian coins use different figures for 0,4, and 5. 0 is O : 4 is ۴ : and 5 is ٤. The O and ٤ are particularly confusing as they ought to represent 5 and 4 rather than 0 and 5. The date ٩0٤ is 905 A.H. on a coin for example of the Indian king of Jaunpur- and it is not 954 as it would be on an Egyptian or Persian coin."
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  7. spirityoda

    spirityoda Coin Junky Supporter

    Interesting coins for sure.
  8. Marsyas Mike

    Marsyas Mike Well-Known Member

    O thank you @Parthicus for taking the trouble to share this information! This is so helpful - it clears up my attribution and I don't feel I'm losing my mind looking at O's and 4's and backwards-3's. If nothing else, I feel now my confusion is justified!

    As if I didn't already have enough trouble "reading" Mughal coins! :banghead: But if it was easy it wouldn't be as much fun, right?

    Thanks again! :singing::):woot::joyful:
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