Indo-Parthian, Margiana or Sogdiana, Unknown king, circa late 1st century BC - early 1st century AD, imitation countermarked Parthian AR Drachm of Phraates IV Obv: Diademed bust left; "countermark": helmeted bust right; to right, eagle left, holding wreath in beak Rev: Archer seated right on throne, holding bow Ref: Sellwood 91.13; Shore 473 Although the legends are garbled, they do seem to have some resemblance to the coin they imitate. Here is the drachm of Phraates IV that could be the model: Phraates IV 38-2 BC. AR Drachm Mint: Rhagae Obv: Diademed bust left, wart on forehead, wearing segmented necklet; to right, eagle left, holding wreath in beak Rev: Arsakes I seated right on throne, holding bow; monogram below bow This coin is described as coming from Sogdiana or Margiana, eastern Parthia. The people of this region appear to have countermarked Parthian coins AND minted imitative coins like the one above with the "countermark" engraved in the die. Perhaps also interesting to note that the countermarks, both real and false, all are careful to avoid defacing the portrait of the Parthian king (coincidence? or some sign of cautious respect?). This area also became a part of the Indo-Parthian kingdom that was founded in AD 19 by Gondophares declaring independance from Parthia. At its peak the territory included parts of what are today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India. I have seen the countermark on this coin described as "Eukratides-style helmeted bust" which is perhaps understandable when you see this small Bactrian obol: Greco-Baktrian Kingdom. Eukratides I, circa 170-145 BC, obol, later 160s BC Obv: Diademed and draped bust of Eukratides to right, wearing Macedonian helmet adorned with bull's horn and ear Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ / ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ, the two caps of the Diokouroi, each with a palm branch beside it; below, monogram of ΗΜΑ A key question for me on the "pseudo-countermark", why go to the trouble? Is there some reason to not issue your own independent coinage and instead imitate a familiar currency with false countermark? This paper comments: "Countermarked drachms of Phraates IV that circulated in northern Bactria (Sellwood, 91.12) were all of Margiana mintage. Series of imitations, struck from obverse dies with "false countermarks" engraved on them, demonstrate how familiar these coins became to the inhabitants of what is now northern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan. They all have the mint mark of Margiana—Π—reproduced on them." - Longinov, S., & Nikitin, A. (1996). Parthian Coins from Margiana: Numismatics and History. Bulletin of the Asia Institute, 10, new series, 39-51. What other groups have issued false-countermarks? I have a Cimmerian coin with a countermark that I think is engraved into the die. Any corrections, additions, relevant references and comments are much appreciated. Share any coins with false countermarks, countermarked Parthian coins or coins imitating Parthian Drachms, or anything else you find interesting or entertaining.