The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, rediscovered in the western world in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt, in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V Epiphanes. The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and demotic scripts, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs by Jean Francois Champollion, thereby opening a window into ancient Egyptian history. The key to deciphering the hieroglyphs was the recognition that the symbols within the cartouche were in fact the king's name. Hence, Ptolemaios in Greek becomes Ptolemaios in hieroglyphs allowing the discovery of a phonetic match.