Ceres Taedifera, "Ceres the torch-bearer.") Ceres holding a torch appears on three reverse types: Ceres standing holding corn-ears and long torch; empress' intermediate hairstyle. Ceres seated holding corn-ears (sometimes also with a poppy) and short transverse torch; empress' intermediate hairstyle. Ceres seated holding corn-ears and long vertical torch; empress' late hairstyle. This new acquisition falls into the third category. Faustina II, AD 147-175. Roman orichalcum sestertius, 24.67 g, 31.0 mm, 11 h. Rome, c. AD 170-175. Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right. Rev: CERES S C, Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long, vertical torch. Refs: RIC 1621; BMCRE 894; Cohen 36; Sear 5271; Banti 25; MIR 3-6/10c. Notes: RIC incorrectly cites Cohen 37. Cohen and Mattiningly (RIC) make a series of errors in their catalog descriptions. Here are the listings in Cohen and RIC for the various coins of this type. Cohen: RIC: The first error these venerable references make is that each fails to distinguish between the second and third types in silver, which I have previously discussed, even though they are clearly different issues, issued years apart. Both of these coins are listed as RIC 669 and Cohen 35. I think this is because Mattingly simply cited Cohen, without verification; in his later work, BMCRE4, he notes the two different varieties in the British Museum collection (BMCRE 82 and 79). Short, transverse scepter type with Faustina's intermediate hairstyle, AD 161-c. 165. Long, vertical scepter type with Faustina's late hairstyle, c. AD 170-175. Cohen, however, does note there are two reverse types on his description of the bronze issues. Note his description for nos. 36, 37, and 38. He uses two different words for "torch": flambeau for no. 36 and torche for nos. 37 and 38. It's clear that Cohen uses flambeau to refer to a long torch; for the CERES standing variety (Cohen 33 and 34, the denarius and middle bronze, respectively) he uses the term flambeau. These scarce coins depict a long torch: Cohen 33 Ceres with flambeau, BMCRE 78. RIC 668 describes this simply as "torch." Cohen 34, Ceres with flambeau allumé, BMCRE 966. RIC 1619 as "lighted torch." So, Cohen must mean a short torch when he uses the term torche. We also know this because he uses this term to refer to a middle bronze depicting Ceres seated with a short transverse torch, no. 38 (RIC 1622, BMCRE 967), which was not issued with the long vertical torch reverse design. We see that Cohen is absolutely consistent in his use of flambeau to refer to a long torch and torche to refer to a short torch. It's clear that my new sestertius is RIC 1621, for it depicts Ceres with a "long torch." But RIC 1621 cites Cohen 37, which is the variety for which Cohen uses torche, by which he means "short torch." Therefore, RIC 1620 refers to this coin, for it depicts Ceres with a "torch." RIC 1620 cites Cohen 36, which Cohen describes with the word flambeau, by which he means "long torch." Therefore, the second error is that RIC is vague and in error in translating Cohen’s descriptions. Unfortunately, even a new reference, Szaivert (MIR), is likewise confused about the various Ceres types and mismatches the descriptions and the references, perhaps reflecting the confusion provoked by RIC’s errors. In conclusion: There are TWO varieties of this coin in the denarius and sestertius denominations, an earlier one depicting Faustina's intermediate hairstyle coupled with Ceres holding a short transverse torch, and a later one depicting Faustina's late hairstyle coupled with Ceres holding a long, vertical torch. (The type depicting Ceres holding a poppy in addition to grain ears -- RIC 1623, Cohen 39 -- always has a short transverse torch and is probably best considered a minor variant of that type). There is ONE variety of this coin in the middle bronze denomination; it depicts Faustina with her intermediate coiffure and Ceres with a short, transverse torch. Mattingly errs in RIC when he cites Cohen in his description of the two sestertii with the Ceres seated reverse design. Let's see your CERES reverse types, Faustina sestertii, examples of erroneous RIC listings, or whatever you feel is relevant!