Faustina Friday – The AVGVSTA/Ceres with grain ears and torch issue.

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Roman Collector, Jun 18, 2021.

  1. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    TGIFF!!!

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    How about some Ceres?
    [​IMG]
    Well, maybe the ale later. But that's not what I'm talking about.

    [​IMG]

    No, not the dwarf planet, either! I'm talking about Ceres, the goddess of agriculture!

    [​IMG]

    Martin Beckmann’s Diva Faustina: Coinage and Cult in Rome and the Provinces,[1] has greatly clarified the dating and arrangement of the Diva Faustina coinage. Beckmann identified an almost complete sequence of die-linkages for the aurei, supported by additional shorter, but corroborative, die-linkages among the sestertii. In addition, he discovered several mules with reverse die-linkages to dated coins of Antoninus or Aurelius Caesar, which connected certain issues to other dated events. These studies enabled Beckman to produce a comprehensive and reliable sequence of relative dating.

    The coinage is divided into five main phases commencing with the deification and funeral of Faustina. The use of the DIVA FAVSTINA obverse inscription commences with the third phase of issues, from AD 145-147, issued in conjunction with the marriage of her daughter, Faustina II, to Marcus Aurelius. The AVGVSTA reverse types depicting Ceres holding a single torch belong to this third phase of issues.

    There are a disproportionate number of coins depicting Ceres that were issued for Faustina and this is not coincidental. Andreas Alföldi argues that the connection between the empress and Ceres goes beyond mere concern over the grain supply or her devotion to the goddess.[2] It is more personal; Antoninus Pius was devoted to the sanctuary at Eleusis,[3] which had a temple where Faustina was worshiped as the new Demeter (Ceres) and had her own hierophant.[4] This article deals with only one coin type: the type bearing the AVGVSTA reverse legend and depicting Ceres standing left, holding corn ears in her right hand and either a long or short torch in her left that were issued AD 145-147 as noted above.

    Coins with this reverse design and legend were issued in the denarius, sestertius, and middle-bronze denominations. The bust may be right- or left-facing (denarius) and either veiled or bare-headed (all denominations). On the denarii, Ceres holds only a long torch; on the bronze denominations, the torch may be short or long. A new listing of known coin types is necessary because RIC[5] does not include the middle bronze coinage with Ceres holding a short torch and Cohen[6] is in error in his description of a sestertius with a veiled bust on which Ceres bears the long torch. All coins illustrated belong to my collection unless otherwise noted.

    Let’s see any Faustina coins you have depicting Ceres or anything you feel is relevant!

    Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and long torch

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA Ceres corn ears long torch denarius.jpg
    Faustina I, AD 138-140.
    Roman AR denarius, 2.69 g, 18.2 mm, 7 h.
    Rome, AD 145 or later.
    Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: AVGVSTA, Ceres, veiled and draped, standing left, holding two corn-ears in right hand and torch in left hand.
    Refs: RIC 360a; BMC 408-414; Cohen/RSC 78; RCV 4582; Strack 474; CRE 76.

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA Ceres corn ears long torch denarius veiled left bust NAC.jpg
    With left-facing, veiled bust (RIC 360d; BMCRE 415; Cohen –; RSC 78a), Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG, Auction 100, lot 508, 29 May 2017.

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA S C Ceres long torch sestertius.jpg
    Faustina I, AD 138-140.
    Roman orichalcum sestertius, 25.59 g, 32.6 mm, 6 h.
    Rome, AD 145-147.
    Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: AVGVSTA S C, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and long torch.
    Refs: RIC 1116(a); BMCRE 1509-11; Cohen 79; RCV 4614; Strack 1286.
    Note: RIC 1116(b), uncritically citing Cohen 81, describes a variety of this coin with a veiled bust. The existence of this coin is doubtful. Cohen cites no source. Strack lists no examples. An exhaustive search of internet databases yields nothing. I suspect that Cohen mistakenly described the middle bronze version of this coin (RIC 1169b) with the veiled bust type as a sestertius.

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA S C Ceres long torch Dupondius.jpg
    Faustina I, AD 138-140.
    Roman Æ as or dupondius; 12.09 g, 25.7 mm, 7 h
    Rome, AD 145-147.
    Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: AVGV STA SC, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and long torch.
    Refs: RIC 1169(a); BMCRE 1566; Cohen 80; RCV 4645.


    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA S C Ceres AE Strack 2.png
    RIC 1169(b), as above but with veiled bust, is attested by Strack, who cites examples in Budapest (Nationalmuseum), the Vatican, and Naples (Nationalmuseum). The coin is extremely rare and I am unable to find any examples online at the major databases.

    Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and short torch

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA S C Ceres short torch sestertius.jpg
    Faustina I, AD 138-140
    Roman orichalcum sestertius; 22.86 g, 30.5 mm, 6 h.
    Rome, AD 145-147.
    Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, bare-headed and draped bust, right.
    Rev: AVGV STA SC, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears in right hand and short torch slightly inclined to right in left hand.
    Refs: RIC 1117; BMCRE 1512-13; Strack 1285; Cohen –; RCV –.

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA S C Ceres short torch MB bare-headed bust T&F.jpg
    As below, but with bare-headed bust (RIC –; BMCRE –; Cohen –; Strack 1285; RCV --. Tauler & Fau, lot 531, 19 January 2021.

    Faustina Sr AVGVSTA S C Ceres short torch MB veiled bust.jpg
    Faustina I, AD 138-140
    Roman Æ as, 12.21 g, 24.5 mm, 11 h.
    Rome, AD 145-147.
    Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, veiled and draped bust, right.
    Rev: AVGV STA SC, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears in right hand and short torch slightly inclined to right in left hand.
    Refs: RIC –; BMCRE 1567; Cohen –; Strack 1285; RCV –.

    ~~~

    Notes:

    1. Beckmann, Martin. Diva Faustina: Coinage and Cult in Rome and the Provinces. American Numismatic Society, 2012.

    2. Alföldi, Andreas. “Redeunt Saturnia Regna. VII : Frugifer-Triptolemos Im Ptolemaïsch -Römischen Herrscherkult.” Chiron , vol. 9, 1979, pp. 552–606, specifically pp. 586-589.

    3. Eleusis, in the outskirts of Athens, of Eleusian mysteries fame. These mysteries involved elaborate rituals devoted to the worship of Demeter (Ceres).

    4. Mylonas, George E. Eleusis and the Eleusian Mysteries. Princeton University Press, 1961, pp 155, 179.

    5. Mattingly, Harold and Edward A. Sydenham. The Roman Imperial Coinage. III, Spink, 1930.

    6. Cohen, Henry. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Tome III: de Marc Aurèle à Albin (161 à 197 après J.-C.). Paris, 1883.
     
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  3. Ryro

    Ryro The last of the Diadochi Supporter

    Very well done and enjoyable write up with stellar coin examples ta boot! Thanks RC!
    My contribution and only Ceres is on this well worn Titi:
    share3880164165390698058.png
    Julia Titi
    (Daughter of Titus)AE Dupondius Empress. 10.76 grams 27mm
    Rome AD 279-80
    Obv IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
    Draped bust of Julia right hair in bun
    Rv CERES AVGVST S C
    Ceres standing left holding corn ears and long torch
    Sear 2615 RIC Titus 177
    Former: fvrisus.rvfvs
     
  4. ambr0zie

    ambr0zie Dacian Taraboste

    I have 2 worn coins with Ceres I remember now.
    upload_2021-6-18_15-56-27.png

    8.38 g 26 mm
    RIC III Antoninus Pius 1173a (as)
    Date: AD 141
    Legend: DIVA FAVSTINA
    Type: Bust of Faustina I, draped, right, hair elaborately waved and coiled in bands across head and drawn up at back and piled in a round coil on top.
    Legend: AVGVSTA S C
    Type: Ceres, draped, standing, front, head left, holding short lighted torch, transverse, raised in right hand and sceptre, vertical, at side, in left

    upload_2021-6-18_15-57-14.png


    11.53 g 29 mm
    RIC I (second edition) Claudius 94 Dupondius
    From Date: AD 41 To Date: AD 50
    Legend: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
    Type: Head of Claudius, bare, left
    Legend: CERES AVGVSTA S C
    Type: Ceres, veiled and draped, seated left, on ornamented throne, holding grain stalks in right hand and transverse torch in left
     
  5. zumbly

    zumbly Ha'ina 'ia mai ana ka puana Supporter

    Great writeup, RC. My favorite Ceres is on this denarius of the younger Faustina. I like that she's chilling not on a throne or chair but a chest or basket of some sort... most probably filled with agricultural goodies.

    Faustina II - Den Ceres ex Meisner 3073 with tag.jpg
    FAUSTINA II
    AR Denarius. 3.4g, 19.5mm. Rome mint, AD 161-164. RIC 669 (Aurelius). O: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair pulled back and tied in bun behind neck. R: CERES, Ceres seated left on chest, holding grain ears in extended right hand [and short torch cradled in left arm].
    Ex Cardinal Joachim Meisner Collection
     
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  6. Marsyas Mike

    Marsyas Mike Well-Known Member

    I do so look forward to Faustina Friday - they always make me look, and I have way more Ceres types than I thought I did - long torches, short torches, sceptres, etc.


    Faustina I - Dup Ceres Estonia Sep 2020 (0).jpg
    Faustina I Æ Dupondius
    3rd Phase, part 2: wedding of Faustina II to M. Aurelius
    (c. 145-150 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGVSTA S-C, Ceres standing left holding short torch in raised right hand and corn-ears in lowered left hand.
    RIC III, 1171 type 1; Cohen 89;
    (12.71 grams / 26 mm)
    eBay Sep. 2020 (Estonia)


    Fasutina I as Ceres from Port. Jan 2014.jpg
    Faustina I Æ As
    3rd Phase, part 2: wedding of Faustina II to M. Aurelius
    (c. 145-150 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGVSTA S C, Ceres standing front holding
    short lighted torch in right hand and sceptre vertical at side left.
    RIC 1173a (Found in Portugal)
    (8.27 grams / 24 mm)
    eBay Jan. 2014

    Faustrina I - As Ceres 2 torches June 2020 (0a).jpg
    Faustina I Æ As
    4th Phase: Birth of Annia Faustina to Faustina II and Marcus Aurelius
    (c. 147 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    [DI]VA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGVSTA S C, Ceres standing left with short, flaming torches in both hands.
    RIC 1174 (as).
    (10.56 grams / 24 mm)
    eBay June 2020

    Faustina I - Sest. Ceres std. NC lot June 2020 (0).jpg
    Faustina I Æ Sestertius
    3rd Phase, part 2: wedding of Faustina II to M. Aurelius
    (c. 145-150 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    [DI]VA FAVSTINA, draped bust r. / CERES, Ceres standing left, holding corn-ears and long, vertical torch; S-C across fields.
    RIC 1128a; Cohen 139.
    (18.01 grams / 30 mm)
    eBay June 2020

    I think my attribution is wrong on this one, now that I look at the photo closer - it needs further investigation:

    Faustina I - Sest Aeternitas Dec 2018 (0a).jpg
    Faustina I Æ Sestertius
    5th Phase: Anniversary of Faustina’s Deification
    (c. 150-160 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AETE[RNIT]AS, S C, Ceres standing left holding torch and arranging draperies.
    RIC 1100 [scarce].
    (22.81 grams / 30 mm)
    eBay Dec. 2018

    This one is weird - appears to be a sestertius die struck on a dupondius flan? Really big and yellow, but far too light for a sestertius:
    Faustina I - Sestertius on Dup Flan Ceres Lot May 2018 (0).jpg
    Faustina I Æ Sestertius
    (Struck on dupondius flan?)
    3rd Phase, part 2: wedding of Faustina II to M. Aurelius
    (c. 145-150 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    [DIVA] FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGV[ST]A S-C, Ceres standing left with short torch and corn ears.
    RIC 1118; Cohen 88.
    (13.70 grams / 32 mm)
    eBay May 2018

    Now for some silver...

    Faustina I - Den. Ceres torch July 2019 (0).jpg
    Faustina I Denarius
    5th Phase: Anniversary of Faustina’s Deification
    (c. 150-160 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / CONSECRATIO Ceres standing left, holding
    torch and raising right hand.
    RIC 382b; RSC 165a.
    (2.60 grams / 17 mm)
    eBay July 2019

    Faustina I - Ceres std. den. July 2019 (0).jpg
    Faustina I Denarius
    3rd Phase, part 2: wedding of Faustina II to M. Aurelius
    (c. 145-150 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGV-STA, Ceres standing left, holding corn ears & long torch.
    RIC 360; RSC 78; BMC 408.
    (3.11 grams / 17 mm)
    eBay July 2019

    Faustina I - Den. Ceres Lot June 2019.jpg
    Faustina I Denarius
    (c. 141-161 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / CERES, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears and long torch.
    RIC 378a; RSC 136; BMC 461.
    (2.87 grams / 16 mm)
    eBay June 2019

    I think I have a couple more denarii, but I I'm about out of photo space!
     
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  7. Marsyas Mike

    Marsyas Mike Well-Known Member

    In reply to my own post (how vulgar!), but the RIC 1100 above appears to be correct - the "arranging draperies" confused me.

    Here is Wildwinds:

    Faustina I - Sestertius AETERNITAS Ceres RIC 1100 - Wildwinds pic.jpg


    Here is mine (again):

    Faustina I - Sestertius Aeternitas Dec 2018 (0a).jpg
    Faustina I Æ Sestertius
    5th Phase: Anniversary of Faustina’s Deification
    (c. 150-160 A.D.)
    Rome Mint

    DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AETE[RNIT]AS, S C, Ceres standing left holding torch and arranging draperies.
    RIC 1100 [scarce].
    (22.81 grams / 30 mm)
    eBay Dec. 2018
     
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  8. Orielensis

    Orielensis Supporter! Supporter

    Interesting write-up and coins! I particularly like your as with the veiled bust. That's a very nice portrait.

    My only coin from this series is a denarius showing Ceres standing right:

    Rom – Faustina I, denar, Ceres.png
    Faustina I “the Elder” (postumous), Roman Empire, denarius, 141 AD, Rome mint. Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA; draped bust of Faustina I r. Rev: AVGVSTA; Ceres standing r., holding sceptre and grain ears. 18mm, 2.99g. Ref: RIC III Antoninus Pius 358.
     
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  9. gogili1977

    gogili1977 Well-Known Member

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