Aureus (RIC 692, BMCRE 116), British Museum collection. Two bronze specimens from my collection: Faustina II, AD 147-175. Roman orichalcum sestertius, 26.31 g, 29 mm, 12 h. Rome, AD 159. Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right. Rev: IVNONI LVCINAE, Juno standing left between two children, holding a third child on left arm. Refs: RIC 1649; BMCRE 918; Cohen 136; RCV 5277; MIR 18. Faustina II, AD 147-175. Roman orichalcum dupondius, 13.23 g, 25.1 mm, 6 h. Rome, AD 159. Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed and draped bust, right. Rev: IVNONI LVCINAE, Juno standing left between two children, holding a third child on left arm. Refs: RIC 1650; BMCRE p. 541, *; Cohen 137; RCV 5298; MIR 18. But we can further narrow down the date of issue to AD 159. The Juno Lucina reverse type clearly refers to childbirth. Lucina was the aspect of Juno associated with light and childbirth, during which she eased the pain and made sure all went well. Coins portraying Juno Lucina typically commemorate a birth in the Imperial family or that the help of the goddess had been invoked. The identity of the children on the reverse of this are not known with absolute certainty -- and it's possible they are simply the attributes of the personification of Juno Lucina and not intended to represent actual members of the imperial family -- but they are thought by some numismatists to represent (from oldest to youngest) Lucilla, Faustina III, and newborn Fadilla. How do we know this? First, we have to know when the coin was issued. In the absence of titulature beyond AVGVSTA, we must turn to the parallel issues of her father, who also issued coins with this motif on the reverse. Antoninus Pius, AD 138-161. Roman orichalcum sestertius, 23.46 g, 32.3 mm, 12 h. Rome, AD 159 - 160. Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII, laureate head, right. Rev: PIETATI AVG COS IIII, Pietas, standing facing, head left, holding globe in extended right hand and child on left arm; on either side of her, small girl standing, raising one hand. Refs: RIC 1031; BMCRE 2088-90; Cohen 621; Strack 1192; RCV 4205. Given the similarity in reverse motif of Antoninus Pius' PIETATI AVG COS IIII type and Faustina's IVNONI LVCINAE type, Szaivert dates Faustina's IVNONI LVCINAE coins to AD 159. I concur it is highly likely that these coins were issued simultaneously and to commemorate an actual event, the birth of Princess Fadilla, for she was the only child born to Faustina in that year. At the time of the coin's issue, the following of Faustina's children had already died: Domitia Faustina, Antoninus, Aelius, Titus Aelius Antoninus, and a son, the identity of which is unclear. This left only the three daughters, Lucilla, Faustina III, and Fadilla. Lucilla and Faustina were of middle-school age. The coin depicts three children, two old enough to stand and a baby held in an arm. Although the children at the reverse figure's feet are preschooler size, not tween size, I consider this an artistic convention, similar to the way barbarian captives are rendered tiny compared to Roman soldiers on many issues. This is not inconsistent with the conventional wisdom that the coin was issued to commemorate the birth of Fadilla in 159. ~~~ Notes: 1. Strack, Paul L. Untersuchungen Zur Römischen Reichsprägung Des Zweiten Jahrhunderts. Kohlhammer, 1937, pp. 17 f. 2. Fittschen, Klaus, "Die Bildnistypen der Faustina Minor und die Fecunditas Augustae," Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse, 3rd Series, no.126, Göttingen, 1982, p. 5. 3. Jones, J.M. A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins. London: Seaby, 1990, p. 153. 4. Strack, op. cit., pp. 113-18. So too Mattingly, Harold, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, vol. IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. Introduction, indexes and plates. London, BMP, 1968, p. lxxiv. 5. Szaivert, Wolfgang, Die Münzprägung der Kaiser Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus und Commodus (161/192), Moneta Imperii Romani 18. Vienna, 1989, p. 230. 6. Mattingly, op. cit., p. lxxiv. 7. Levick, Barbara. Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 115-18. I here summarize her chronology of births to the imperial family: Faustina’s first child was a daughter, Domitia Faustina, born November 30, 147 AD. She is thought to have died in AD 150 or 151 Titus Aurelius Antoninus ("Antoninus" #2) and his twin brother Titus Aelius Aurelius ("Aelius" #3) were POSSIBLY her second and third children; the historical record is inconsistent and the dates these children were born is not known with certainty or whether they were twins. The birth of the two boys in AD 149 is suggested by coins with the legend temporum felicitas ("happiness of these times"), because their birth meant that dynastic continuity was guaranteed. In ancient Rome, that was another way of saying that a civil war was averted. If these two were twins, Antoninus must have been the elder of the two, because Marcus Aurelius gave this name to the son who he believed would be his successor. However, Aelius died within a year, and Antoninus appears to have died soon after. The evidence is limited to coinage: there is a coin that shows Faustina III and Antoninus; the next coin shows Faustina III alone. There is nothing exceptional to this: infant mortality was high in pre-industrial societies. Aelius and Antoninus were buried in the Mausoleum of Hadrian. Annia Galeria Aurelia Lucilla (#4 or #2), better known as simply Lucilla, was born in AD 149 or 150. Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (#5 or #3), better known as Faustina III, was born in AD 150/151. T. Aelius Antoninus (#6 or #4) was born in AD 152 if not in AD 149, as discussed above. Some identify this male child with T. Aurelius Antoninus or perhaps with Hadrianus. He died in infancy. Son (#7 or #5) dead in infancy, late AD 157 or early 158, known from a letter of Marcus Aurelius acknowledging congratulations on his birth. Some identify him with the T. Aelius Aurelius if not born in AD 149, as discussed above. Annia Aurelia Fadilla, most commonly known as Fadilla (#8 or #6), was born in AD 159. Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor (#9 or #7), was born in August, 160. Of the twins born 31 August 161, the elder (#10 or #8) was called Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antoninus and the younger (#11 or #9) Lucius Aurelius Commodus. Titus died in AD 165. Marcus Annius Verus (#12 or #10) was born in late AD 162. Hadrianus, the youngest son (#13 or #11), was born about AD 165 or 166. Vibia Aurelia Sabina was the youngest child (#14 or #12), a daughter, born in AD 170.