Exhibit: The LINCOLN CENT, 2008 By Cheryl Kubicko

Discussion in 'US Coins Forum' started by cherylkubucko, Jan 2, 2009.

  1. cherylkubucko

    cherylkubucko Grandma Froggie

    Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the sixteenth President of the United States. He successfully led the country through its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery, only to be assassinated as the war was virtually over.

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    Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks, two uneducated farmers, in a one-room log cabin on the 348-acre (1.4 km2) Sinking Spring Farm, in southeast Hardin County, Kentucky (now part of LaRue County), making him the first president born outside the original Thirteen Colonies. Lincoln's ancestor Samuel Lincoln had arrived in Hingham, Massachusetts from England in the 17th century, but his descendants had gradually moved west, from Pennsylvania to Virginia and then westward to the frontier.



    1909 One Cent

    1909 was a year of many "firsts." U.S. Navy engineer Robert E. Peary became the first man to reach the North Pole. The first transcontinental auto race took place between New York and Seattle, and up in the sky, French engineer Louis Bleriot made the first English Channel crossing in a heavier-than-air machine. The United States Mint was preparing a first of its own: a regular-issue U.S. coin honoring an actual person. Defying a tradition that dated back to George Washington's presidency, plans were made to honor the 100th anniversary of Abraham Lincoln's birth with a new cent featuring a bust of the beloved president.

    http://www.coinsite.com/CoinSite-PF/pparticles/01clinc.asp

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    For more than a century, federal officials had followed George Washington's lead and avoided the depiction of presidents, past or present or any other recognizable individuals on the nation's circulating coinage. Thus, when the notion of a Lincoln coin arose, it encountered real resistance from traditionalists. Skeptics and critics were no match, however, for President Theodore Roosevelt. "TR" had a personal interest in revitalizing U.S. coinage. Having pushed through exciting new designs for the four gold denominations, he turned his attention to the cent, where the Indian Head design had held sway since 1859. He was steered in this direction by Victor David Brenner, a Lithuanian emigre with tremendous artistic talent and enormous admiration for Abraham Lincoln. Their paths crossed in 1908, when Roosevelt posed for Brenner for a Panama Canal Service medal. The artist had already modeled a plaque and medal for Lincoln's birth centennial and suggested a Lincoln coin. The president readily agreed and asked him to submit proposed designs. Brenner's obverse design featured a portrait of Lincoln facing right, and for the first time on the cent, the motto IN GOD WE TRUST. Flanking Lincoln's bust on the left was the inscription LIBERTY, with the date on the right. The reverse design showed two sheaves of wheat, one on either side, framing the inscriptions ONE CENT, E PLURIBUS UNUM and UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The highest points on the obverse are Lincoln's cheekbone and jaw, on the reverse the tips of the wheat stalks. These are the places to first show wear.

    1943 Lincoln One Cent

    In 1943, with copper urgently needed for combat-related purposes, the Mint made Lincoln cents from zinc-coated steel.
    Due to wartime needs of copper for use in ammunition and other military equipment during World War II, the US Mint researched various ways to limit dependence and meet conservation goals on copper usage. After trying out several substitutes (ranging from other metals[1] to plastics[2]) to replace the then-standard bronze alloy, it was minted in zinc-coated steel. It was made at all three mints, Philadelphia, Denver, and San Francisco. Coins from the latter two sites have respectively "D" and "S" mintmarks below the date.

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    Production of the war-time cent was provided for in an Act of Congress approved on December 18, 1942, which also set as the expiration date of the authority December 31, 1946. Low-grade carbon steel formed the base of these coins, to which a zinc coating 0.005 inch (0.127 millimeter) thick was deposited on each side electrolytically as a rust preventative. Unfortunately, this coating was applied to the steel before the blanks were made leaving the rims of these coins extremely succeptible to rust. The same size was maintained, but the weight was reduced from the standard 48 grains to 42 grains (3.1 g to 2.7 g), due to the use of a lighter alloy. Production commenced on February 27, 1943, and by December 31 of that year, the three Mint facilities had produced 1,093,838,670 of the one-cent coins. The copper released for the war effort was enough to meet the combined needs of 2 cruisers, 2 destroyers, 1,243 Flying Fortresses, 120 field guns and 120 howitzers, or enough for 1,250,000 shells for large field guns.

    1944 Lincoln One Cent

    On January 1, 1944, the Mint was able to adopt a modified alloy, the supply being derived from expended shell casings which, when melted, furnished a composition similar to the original, but with a much smaller trace of tin. The original weight of 48 grains (3.1 g) was also restored. Shell casings were no longer used after 1946 and the original composition was again used.



    1959 Lincoln One Cent

    In 1959, to commemorate the sesquicentennial of Lincoln's birth, the wheat stalks on the reverse of the coin were replaced with a rendering of the Lincoln Memorial by Frank Gasparro.

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    The composition of the coin was changed again in 1962. Mint officials felt that deletion of the tin content would have no adverse effect on the wearing qualities of the coin, whereas the manufacturing advantages to be gained with the alloy stabilized at 95% copper and 5% zinc would be of much benefit. Congressional authority for this modification is contained in an Act of Congress approved on September 5, 1962.

    During the early 1970s, the price of copper rose to a point where the cent almost contained one cent's worth of copper. This led the Mint to test alternate metals, including aluminum and bronze-clad steel. Aluminum was chosen, and in 1973, a total of 1,579,324 such coins were struck (dated 1974) and ready for public release. A few were distributed to members of the US Congress. Subsequently; aluminum was rejected because, among other reasons, it would not show up on X-rays should it be swallowed.


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    In mid-1982, the coin's composition changed again to copper-plated zinc. The last all-copper cents were produced by the Denver Mint on October 22, 1982. These copper-plated coins, which are still being produced today, contain 97.5% zinc and 2.5% copper, and are minted on blanks produced for the Mint by an outside manufacturer (Jarden Zinc Products). This coin is identical in size and appearance to, but at 2.5 grams is lighter than the 3.11 grams of copper cents issued before 1982, but this modification saves the Government an estimated $25 million in metal costs every year. (Both types were produced that year and all are common.) The zinc core can be readily seen if the copper plating is abraded or otherwise scraped off.

    2008

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    Thus, 2008 will be the 49th anniversary, and last year that the Lincoln Memorial will be on the U.S cent.[10] This redesign was passed as part of the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, which also mandates that in 2009, numismatic cents will be issued for collectors that have the metallic copper content of cents minted in 1909. In 2010, the cent's reverse will be redesigned again, with a new, permanent design being released into circulation. The redesign will bear an image that is emblematic of Lincoln's preservation of the United States as a single and united country. Lincoln, however, will remain on the obverse, though a new obverse design is possible. For now, the composition for circulating issues will remain copper-plated zin.


    2009 New Lincoln One Cent Reverse

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  3. mark_h

    mark_h Somewhere over the rainbow

    Nice post!
     
  4. Arizona Jack

    Arizona Jack The Lincoln-ator

    Well done Cheryl, Kudos !!!!!
     
  5. cherylkubucko

    cherylkubucko Grandma Froggie

    Thanks, Alot of work on this one. I felt this would be a good time to get ready for the change. Like the Quarter program, we had to adjust to the new coins. Cheryl
     
  6. mrbrklyn

    mrbrklyn New Member

    Boy Cheryl. Now you really did it. Every Lincoln fan on Coin Talk is going to have to make a trip to Austin and pay Homage. You better have a lot of lemonae and Pecan Pie ready for Arizona Jack and company.

    Excellent work and I can see your skills developing right before my eyes!

    Ruben
     
  7. ericl

    ericl Senior Member

    I saw a shiny new 2008 penny lying on the street the other day. I'm keeping it as the last of it's kind. None will ever be made of that design again. I'm not sure that I'll see many of this year's commemoratives in circulation. I have yet to see a 2008 nickel, and only saw my second 2007 in circulation (unc. and proof sets don't count in my opinion).

    As to the new commem cents, get one or two rolls and a very few singles and then try to ignore them when you get one in change.

    They should have just wiped the slate clean and had lady liberty on everything like they were planning back in the late '80s.
     
  8. cherylkubucko

    cherylkubucko Grandma Froggie

    thanks every one , In texas we do the BIG BBQ
     
  9. sjkazlow

    sjkazlow The Coin Dude

    Woo! I'm up for some of that!:eat:
    Great post, very informative.
     
  10. cherylkubucko

    cherylkubucko Grandma Froggie

    Thanks. See I told ya'll we have the Big BBQ. Where are you in Texas. Cheryl
     
  11. MJD

    MJD Junior Member

    2009 New Lincoln One Cent Reverse

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    That is quite the story ........amazing !!

    Thanks for your time and info. I assume for sure this is the reverse designs that will be implemented each quarter of this year ?
    May I ask how you found out the designs info ?
    Thank you again,


    mjd


    :smile
     
  12. ericl

    ericl Senior Member

    Now I wonder what the '10+ reverse will look like?
     
  13. cherylkubucko

    cherylkubucko Grandma Froggie



    That is quite the story ........amazing !!

    Thanks for your time and info. I assume for sure this is the reverse designs that will be implemented each quarter of this year ?
    May I ask how you found out the designs info ?
    Thank you again,


    mjd


    :smile[/quote]

    You can go here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_cent and Thanks
     
  14. MJD

    MJD Junior Member

    You can go here:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln_cent and Thanks[/quote]




    OK......again, ...great reading ! I"ve always been in awe with the history of President Lincoln and our times back then, what a great motivation to seek more interesting Lincoln items, thank you for more info .....


    mjd


    :whistle:
     
  15. mralexanderb

    mralexanderb Coin Collector

    Great thread, Cheryl. And as you mentioned, very timely. The changes to the 1 cent coin will bring new interest to coin collecting and this exhibit teaches us all something. I learn something new every time I visit CoinTalk.

    Bruce
     
  16. ewomack

    ewomack 魚の下着 Supporter

    I recently heard that Liam Neeson was cast for a Spielberg movie about Lincoln. Tentatively planned for 2010 release. I have this feeling they won't mention the penny, though...
     
  17. Jim M

    Jim M Ride it like ya stole it

    Good Job Cheryl. Nice write up and useful information.
     
  18. FreakyGarrettC

    FreakyGarrettC Wise young snail

    I was born in Austin, got any left overs? :eating: :goofer:
     
  19. rzage

    rzage What Goes Around Comes Around .

    Cheryl two great threads , you're really getting good at this computer stuff , congratulations .
    rzage:hail:
     
  20. cherylkubucko

    cherylkubucko Grandma Froggie

    I want to thanks everyone for the nomination on this thread, but I have to really Thank two people here. Darryl for introducing me to the software and to Ruben for the contest to allow me to explore new software. A BIG THANKS TO YOU. Cheryl
     
  21. mrbrklyn

    mrbrklyn New Member

    Tied 8th Place: 5th Place Qualifier








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    Exhibit: The LINCOLN CENT, 2008 By Cheryl Kubicko http://www.cointalk.com/forum/t45700/
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