Exhibit: Gallienus Antoninianus - 253-268- Photographed by Oct 2008- by Me

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by randygeki, Jan 3, 2009.

  1. randygeki

    randygeki Coin Collector

    Exhibit: Gallienus Antoninianus - 253-268- Photographed Oct 2008- by Me

    I had gotten a cheap little baggy of cleaned Roman coins, and one of them was of Gallienus, with and X through his head. The card that came with the coins said it was defaced in antiquity probably as a sign of disaprovel.


    "Obverse
    Radiate crowned head of Gallienus facing right.
    GALLIENUS AUG.
    Reverse
    A woman, the personification of Pax, standing left, holding in her right hand an olive branch, in her left a cornucopiae, and under her left arm, a sceptre.
    PAX AUG"



    "Pax - Peace
    [​IMG]
    Pax or Peace was a very common Roman coin type, especially in time of war, and when the Empire was in decline. The sceptical would suppose that the word PAX and the goddess Pax were employed on coins as propaganda rather than to commemorate any particular peace.
    Gallienus spent most of his reign occupied in frontier battles and internal struggles. Peace was therefore a particularly inappropriate theme to adorn his coins, unless it was for propaganda purposes, in which case it was particularly apt.
    The construction of a magnificent temple in Rome was begun by Claudius to the honour of Pax. She is shown on the coins of Gallienus holding an olive branch, a cornucopiae, and a sceptre. Her other attributes include the "hasta pura" - a spear without the business end, a cornucopiae, and occasionally a caduceus.
    Pax was known to the Greeks as Eirene."

    http://24carat.co.uk/gallienuspaxframe.html

    -----
    Antoninianus debased

    "Nero had first debased the Roman coinage, and mild inflation and debasement had continued gradually. During the reign of Gallienus, from about AD 260, the silver coinage was completely debased, and hyper-inflation occurred. Prices had risen by a factor of about 3 from the first to the third centuries. During the second half of Gallenius' reign, prices rose by a factor of about 20. Bankers refused to accept the vast quantities of low quality coins which were minted. Low quality referring mainly to their lack of precious metal content, but later by their reduced size, and irregular shape. Very few gold and true silver coins were issued, and these are quite rare. The antoninianus, which had started as a silver coin, had its silver content reduced to that of a thin silver coating, and eventually even this pretence stopped, later coins being completely base metal."

    http://24carat.co.uk/romanantoninianusgallienusframe.html

    -------

    "Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorius"

    http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Gallienus.html

    ------

    Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus

    “Roman emperor; b. about 218; d. at Milan, 4 March, 268; appointed regent by his father Valerian when the Germans threatened the boundaries of the empire on the Rhine and the Danube. Gallienus took the western half of the empire and his father the eastern portion, in 255. Gallienus was by nature indolent and fond of pleasure. He was cruel to the vanquished, and was unable to repel the attacks of the Frankish invaders of Gaul, but bribed their chieftains to undertake the wardenship of the Rhenish borderline. When the Alemanni burst through the limes Rhaticus, or Rhætian barrier, and invaded Upper Italy, the senate armed the Roman burgesses for the first time in thirty years and raised a force of troops on its own responsibility. Gallienus defeated the enemy at Milan, but made an alliance with one of the chiefs of the Marcomanni, and gave him Upper Pannonia. He forbade the senators to enter the military service, to have anything to do with the army, and excluded them from the administration of the provinces. In consequence of this decree, the former distinction between imperial and senatorial provinces disappeared. During the wars against the Germans many distinguished Roman officers were proclaimed emperors in the various provinces. The most successful of these was Aurelian, who later became sole emperor. In consequence of the withdrawal of the troops from the eastern boundaries, the countries near the Bosphorus and the Black Sea were laid open to pillage at the hands of the Goths. Simultaneously the Persians under Sapor I swooped down on Asia Minor. Valerian led an army against them, but was betrayed and captured. His servitude lasted until his death in 260.
    Gallienus thereupon became sole ruler. A bloody persecution of the Christians broke out in 257- 258, instigated by imperial edicts; they were accused of failure to take up arms in defence of the empire from its invaders. Whoever refused to take part in the Roman pagan rites was first exiled, then slain. One of the first victims was St. Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, who was executed 14 September, 258; at RomeSixtus II and his deaconSt. Lawrence suffered martyrdom. After the death of his father, Gallienus granted liberty of worship to the Christians. He recognized as his deputy in the East Odenanthus, ruler of the commercial city of Palmyra and energetic conqueror of Sapor I, King of Persia. Afterwards he made him emperor. In the course of the wars against the enemies of the empire, the soldiers at various times proclaimed eighteen of their generals provincial emperors. These men were also called "The Thirty Tyrants". Among them were Postumus in Gaul, and Ingenuus in Pannonia, over whom Gallienus won a partial victory, with the help of Aureolus, the commander-in-chief of the imperial armies. When the troops in Italy acclaimed Aureolus "imperator", he tried to make himself master of Italy and Rome, but was defeated by Gallienus on the Adda and shut up in Milan. Gallienus was assassinated by his officers while this siege was going on. “

    From: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06366a.htm
    other articles on Gallienus:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallienus
    http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


    (since this isnt really complete, and the photo is terrible I'm not going to enter it into the competion, but I wanted to share some of what I learned, tryen to get it ready, with all of you)
     

    Attached Files:

    stevex6, TIF and cplradar like this.
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  3. randygeki

    randygeki Coin Collector

    here is an earlier Antoninianus of Gallienus which still had some silver content.
     

    Attached Files:

  4. mrbrklyn

    mrbrklyn New Member

    Randy - Every one of your Exhibits have been TextBOOK Grad Level precise work! As a body they are amazing!

    Ruben
     
  5. randygeki

    randygeki Coin Collector

    Thank you very much :)
     
  6. mrbrklyn

    mrbrklyn New Member

  7. mrbrklyn

    mrbrklyn New Member

    under apreciated
     
  8. cplradar

    cplradar Talmud Chuchum

  9. non_cents

    non_cents Well-Known Member

    Are you just going to keep bumping all these really old threads? Look at the date...last post was june 2010.
     
  10. John Anthony

    John Anthony Ultracrepidarian Supporter

    Still a good review, despite the age of the thread. Randy, are you sure the coin was defaced? The X looks like it's raised. Perhaps it was the die that was defaced?
     
  11. randygeki

    randygeki Coin Collector

    Thanks! The X was recessed . I'd take a new photo, but I traded it :oops:
     
  12. cplradar

    cplradar Talmud Chuchum

    how could it not be recessed?
     
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