Marble bust of Philetaerus. Roman copy from 1st century AD of the Greek original When I think of the Hellenic period, compared to the Classical and Archaic period, the first thing that comes to my mind are 'kings'. In the Hellenic period, kings started to put their portraits on the coins. Before it was only done with portraits or iconography of the gods, it was considered arrogant for a king to put his own face on the coin. When kings started to put their face on the coin in the Hellenic period, they actually gave themselves a 'divine' status. The below coin I obtained is in my opinion a great example of the artistry of the Hellenic period, just compare it with the nice bust above. The portrait has a heroic pose (eventhough Mr. Philetairos here was a eunuch) showing everyone who was the boss around here. This coin obviously had active circulation, with ticks and bangs on the surface, and a (non-distracting) testcut on the chin of the king, but nonetheless the artistry of this piece was preserved. Kings of Pergamon. Eumenes I (263-241 BC). AR Tetradrachm. In the name of Philetairos. Pergamon mint. Struck circa 255/0-241 BC. Obverse: Laureate head of Philetairos right. Reverse: ΦΙΛΕΤΑΙΡΟΥ. Athena enthroned left, elbow resting on shield to right, crowning dynastic name; transverse spear in background, ivy leaf to outer left, monogram to inner left, bow to right. Reference: Meydancikkale 3008 ff.; SNG BN 1612. 17.00g When Lysimachos established the mint of Pergamon, he entrusted its treasury to the eunuch Philetairos. Philetairos changed his allegiance to Seleukos I, probably shortly before the Battle of Korupedion in 281 BC, where Seleukos defeated Lysimachos. Although Seleukos was assassinated the following year, Philetairos continued to acknowledge Seleukid primacy for some time, but soon struck a coinage in his own name. This coinage featured Athena Nikephoros on the reverse, similar to the reverses of Lysimachos. Perhaps because this move might have been viewed as a threat by his Seleukid overlord, the obverse of the first issues of these coins featured the portrait of Seleukos I. Near the end of Philetairos’ reign, in the mid-late 260s, the portrait of Seleukos was replaced with the portrait of the Pergamene king, noting a final break from Seleukid authority. Similar to what was done in Ptolemaic Egypt, all of the subsequent kings of Pergamon continued to use these types on the coinage, and even kept the name of Philetairos. Distinguishing the issues between the various rulers has been difficult for numismatists. Westermark’s die study of the coinage, however, provided the key necessary for understanding the series, although more recent hoard evidence has refined Westermark’s assignment of the issues. Philetairos never married and, since he was a eunuch, had no children. He adopted his nephew Eumenes I, who succeeded him as ruler of Pergamon, upon his death in 263 BC. The above coin is therefore minted by his nephew, the successor, who recognized Philetairos as the founder of their dynasty. Please share your coins of Pergamon and the Pergamene kings! Also, show your examples of Hellenic artistry on coins.