Countermarked aes coins - post Claudius Britannia conquest

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by jamesicus, Nov 8, 2018 at 2:39 PM.

  1. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    Part I - Claudian derivitives:

    You do come by some pretty “scuzzy” coins many of which have much worn, dark and rough surfaces. That doesn’t bother me at all, for it is the historical association that is important to me. I have lightened up the coin photos somewhat in order to show the Countermarks better.

    TYPICAL IMITATIVE CLAUDIUS SPES SESTERTIUS WITH DEVALUATION COUNTERMARK

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    Pangeri 85d, (30mm, 15.2gm)
    Countermarked DV (denoting half value) on obverse.

    Enlargement of DV countermark:

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    This is a devaluation countermark indicating this coin is re valued as a Dupondius (half value) due to its low weight. Note the edge chisel mark on the obverse at approx. 3 o'clock which is always present on these DV countermarked coins.

    TYPICAL IMITATIVE CLAUDIUS SPES SESTERTIUS WITH DEVALUATION COUNTERMARK

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    Pangeri 85d, (29mm, 14.6gm)
    Countermarked DV (denoting half value) on obverse

    Enlargement of DV countermark:

    [​IMG]

    This is a devaluation countermark indicating this coin is re valued as a Dupondius (half value) due to its low weight. The same. Note edge chisel mark on the obverse at approx. 3 o'clock which is always present on DV countermarked coins.

    TYPICAL IRREGULAR CLAUDIUS OB CIVES SERVATOS SESTERTIUS WITH COUNTERMARK

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    BMCRE, Vol. I, CLAUDIUS, SESTERTIUS, Rome, No. 120, 41-45AD (38mm, 29.2gm)
    Obverse depiction: Claudius, laureate head facing right
    Inscription: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP
    Countermarked PROB
    Mattingly note - Cmk. in oblong incuse in front of neck and face; end of legend obliterated
    Reverse depiction: Civic Oak Wreath
    Inscription in four lines:

    EX SC
    O B
    C I V E S
    SERVATOS

    (within Civic Oak Wreath)

    Enlargement of PROB countermark:

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    PROB (Probatum = approved) countermark. I believe this to be an irregular issue coin (struck from locally made unofficial dies). Note the flattened and bulged area on the reverse resulting from the very heavily struck countermark on the obverse which was carelessly positioned almost off the flan. The inscriptional lettering on the reverse is somewhat uneven and not very well formed.
     
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  3. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    Part II - countermarked Caligula & Nero aes coinage

    TYPICAL CALIGULA GERMANICUS SIGNIS RECEPT DUPONDIUS WITH CLAUDIUS COUNTERMARK

    Claudius also Countermarked and issued asses and dupondii of Caligula in order to extend the supply of money after his expedition to Britain and his subsequent conquest of the island.

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    Germanicus SIGNIS RECEPT dupondius
    BMCRE, Vol I, Caligula, No. 93 (RIC, Vol I, No. 57)
    Reverse: Claudius Countermark TIAV in oblong incuse to left of head
    Mattingly, BMCRE, Vol. I, Caligula, No. 93 & Plate 30

    Enlargement of TIAV countermark:

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    Mattingly lists TIAV as the usual Countermark employed by Claudius for these coins. They were issued for extended circulation in Britain by Claudius following his Victory there. These were the common Roman denominations used as legal tender in Britannia - evidently for a very long time, for many are found in very worn condition.

    TYPICAL CALIGULA AGRIPPA NEPTUNE AS WITH CLAUDIUS COUNTERMARK

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    Agrippa Obverse & Neptune reverse As
    BMCRE, Vol I, Tiberius, No. 168 (RIC, Vol I, No. 58)
    Plate 26
    Reverse: Claudius Countermark TIAV (A and V ligatured) in oblong incuse over head of Neptune

    "In hand" enlargement of countermark:

    [​IMG]
    Neptune reverse
    As, BMCRE, Vol I, Tiberius, No. 168 (RIC, Vol I, No. 58)
    Plate 26
    Reverse: Claudius Countermark TIAV in oblong incuse over head of Neptune

    Mattingly lists TIAV as the usual Countermark employed by Claudius for these coins. They were issued for extended circulation in Britain by Claudius following his Victory there. These were the common Roman denominations used as legal tender in Britannia - evidently for a very long time, for many are found in very worn condition.

    TYPICAL CLAUDIUS TRIUMPHAL ARCH SESTERTIUS WITH NERO COUNTERMARK

    Nero also Countermarked and issued Claudius aes coinage in order to extend the supply of money in Britain after the death of Claudius.

    [​IMG][​IMG]
    BMCRE, Vol. I, CLAUDIUS, SESTERTIUS, Rome, No. 123, 41-45AD (35mm, 22.3gm)
    Obverse depiction: Claudius, laureate head facing right
    Inscription: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IMP
    Countermarked NCAPR in oblong incuse rectangle behind head (unknown mark on head)
    Reverse depiction: Triumphal arch surmounted by equestrian statue of Nero Claudius Drusus
    Inscription: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP

    Enlargement of NCAPR countermark:

    [​IMG]
    This coinage was usually countermarked NCAPR - which is interpreted different ways by collectors and researchers, with the most popular and frequently used interpretations being Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit or Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano. This coin was well struck and centered. Likewise, the countermark is well struck and correctly positioned. I believe this to be a coin originally produced at the Rome mint.
     
  4. John Anthony

    John Anthony Ultracrepidarian Supporter

    Very interesting indeed. Those bronzes obviously circulated extensively before and after they were remonetized. Is it fair to assume that the edge chisel marks were created by clamping the coins down so they could be struck with the countermarks?
     
  5. jamesicus

    jamesicus Supporter! Supporter

    I do not know the answer to that question John. In his dissertation, Robert Kenyon simply says the DV counter stamped coins always have this chisel cut on the edge of the coin at 3 o’clock. I have found this to be so with my coins and other specimens I have examined. The cuts are not very precisely positioned and are of different sizes and shapes.
     
    Last edited: Nov 10, 2018 at 5:16 PM
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