top 10 list for 2021 (I apologize for my long hiatus in making new threads, but I promise a few more will be coming in the future), there was only one coin that I didn't have in hand, forcing me to use the auction house's photo; having finally received it today, I thought it was interesting enough to deserve not only a thread but an overview of its issue, taking into account its context, its types and its influences on the future. Roman Empire, Claudius II (268-270), Antoninianus, Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG, Emperor on horseback riding left, raising right arm and holding transverse sceptre in left hand; RIC V - (c.f. RIC V 13); RIC V Online 100; The antoniniani of Claudius II with the obverse legend IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS P F AVG presumably constitute the Rome mint's very first emission in honour of this emperor, since not only was it customary to use the new ruler's full name in his first emission, but these coins are usually struck on broader flans and retain much more silvering than their standard counterparts, possibly indicating that they were prepared with more care to better impress the populace; however, their rarity and the small number of obverse dies, which feature much more detailed and realistic portraits, suggests that the issue was small and quickly replaced by the more debased and generic coins that people tend to associate with Claudius II's reign. This variant is particularly rare, as the only other known example that paired up this obverse legend with the ADVENTVS reverse type was a double die match sold by CNG and previously part of the Finn Johannessen collection: (Image courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group) The historical context When he rose to the purple after having murdered Gallienus during the siege of Mediolanum in the summer of 268 AD, the former magister equitum had to face an incredibly challenging situation, as the empire was split into three pieces and external invaders were pouring in from all sides, forcing him to immediately spring into action: he immediately put an end to the siege by storming the city and executing the rebellious general Aureolus, who had entrenched himself after declaring for the Gallic emperor Postumus and striking coins in his name, before issuing a large donative consisting of gold multiples to placate the army, who, from the few surviving sources, appears to have been mostly unaware of the officers' plot and might have resented their murder of Gallienus, who despite all of the problems of the time, had managed to lead them to several victories. (Image courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group) Even then, the situation was still very precarious, as the Alamans had taken advantage of the strife to invade Italy from beyond the Alps, forcing Claudius to meet them in battle and defeat them on the shores of Lake Garda; with the frontier now finally somewhat secure, the emperor was able to descend to Rome, where a large commemorative issue was struck, featuring, besides the aforementioned ADVENTVS types and those with the complete obverse legends, military busts and medallions: (Image courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group) Once in Rome it appears that he distributed donatives, celebrated a triumph for his victory against the Alamans, claimed the title of Germanicus Maximus (which is attributed to him by some early inscriptions of his reign) and that he also held the consulship for the first and only time of his reign, though, unusually, commemorative antoniniani were only struck at Mediolanum, even though Rome would've made much more sense, since it was where the celebration took place and also because the mint had already used consular busts for Gallienus in occasion of his consulships. Roman Empire, Claudius II (268-270), Antoninianus, Mediolanum mint. Obverse: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate bust left, wearing trabea, holding Victory on globe in right hand and scipio in left hand; Reverse: PA-X A-VG, Pax running left, holding olive branch in right hand and transverse sceptre in left hand, T in exergue; RIC V - (c.f. RIC V 157); RIC V Online 46; Huvelin 1980, 10; Toffanin 311/4; The types Overall, the ADVENTVS group of coins consists of eight types, these being seven antoniniani and one medallion; as for the first ones, they must be distinguished in two groups depending on their obverse legends, with the first one logically being chronologically earlier due to the rarity and the longer titulature (either IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS P F AVG, which I've already shown before, or IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG): (Image courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group) The second group, on the other hand, uses the more common later legend IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG: four types are "standard", featuring the A1, B1, D1 and D2 (by far the most common) bust types, plus one using an extremely rare military bust: (Image courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group) (Image courtesy of Paul Francis Jacquier) The most interesting of them all is by far the medallion, though, represented by a unique example in Florence, since the wider flan allowed the engraver to expand the legends and to enrich the reverse depiction, where the emperor is now accompanied by Victory, two standards and two soldiers in military attire: (Image courtesy of RIC V Online) While this was the only issue of Claudius II with this kind of reverse, it wasn't the end of the iconography of the ADVENTVS, as this reverse legend was used for several types by Aurelian (at Milan and Cyzicus with the emperor on horseback walking left, jsut like Claudius II, and also at Rome but with him trampling an enemy) and also by Tacitus for some very rare quinarii, as well as a medallion that bears the same exact kind of reverse as Claudius II's: (Image courtesy of RIC V Online) Conclusion I find the ADVENTVS types and its PROFECTIO counterparts to be some of the most fascinating reverses on Roman Imperial coins, due to both their iconography and the fact that they can usually be pinpointed to a specific event, which gives them a lot of historical value, and I know I'm not the only one who's a fan of them, so I'd love to see your contributions. That's all for now; post your ADVENTVS or PROFECTIO coins, your first-issue coins, your coins of Claudius II from Rome, or anything else you feel like might be relevant !