Nabataean silver coinage experienced a gradual debasement throughout the reigns of Aretas IV, Malichus II, and Rabbel II, with these last issues containing as little as 30-40% silver. These coins are the "blacks" referred to in six Greek papyri discovered at Naḥal Ḥever, in which various sums of money are expressed as such, e.g., "one black and thirty lepta" or "710 blacks of silver." The term "black" was a pejorative Roman moniker for these sela'im. It may have referred to the color of the coins, as billon is apt to darken more so than silver of higher fineness. However, David Goldenberg has recently proposed that the epithet refers to the earliest drachms of Provincia Arabia, which were overstruck on Nabataean sela'im, i.e., the image of Rabbel was "blackened out" by the portrait of Trajan. The low fineness of these coins certainly illustrates the work of normal inflationary dynamics, but by no means suggests that the Nabataean economy was floundering. Under the rule of Rabbel II, the Nabataean population expanded and thrived. The frankincense trade continued to prosper the nation, and the agricultural industry grew vigorously in response to the increasing demands of sedantarisation. Petra was a flourishing modern capitol. It is instructive to note that when the Romans acquired the Nabataean Kingdom, their first provincial drachms were simply struck over the sela'im. Despite their low silver content, they were evidently acceptable to the needs of commerce. Sela'im of Rabbel/Gamilat were minted from RY 6 (75/76 CE) to RY 32 (101/102 CE), a period of approximately 27 years. They are found in abundance, but are rather carelessly made. The engraving style exhibits thick, coarse lines, and the coins are frequently struck off-center, always on tight flans. The inscriptions are consistently compromised in one way or another. (Of the 20 specimens sold by CNG, only 3 have readable dates.) Nabataean Kingdom: Rabbel II, 70-106 CE AR Sela, 16mm, 3.45g; Petra mint, RY 22 (91/92 CE). Obv.: Laureate and draped bust of Rabbel II right; around, inscription, 22 רבאל מלכא מלך - נבטו שׂנת (Rabbel the king, king of the Nabataeans, Year 22). Rev.: Veiled and draped bust of Gamilat right; around, inscription, גמלתּ אחתה מלכת נבטו (Gamilat his sister, queen of the Nabataeans). Reference: Meshorer 154.