provenance to the Zachary “Beast” Beasley Collection of Camp Gates. Roman Empire Constantius II as Caesar BI Follis, Arelatum Mint (Arles), 4th officina, struck AD 328 Dia.: 19.9 mm Wt.: 3.2 g Obv.: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right Rev.: VIRTVS CAESS; Campgate with 4 turrets, star above, gates open, each door with two panels, each panel ornamented with two dots; S – F flanking sides; QCONST in exergue. Ref.: RIC VII Arles 323 Ex Zachary “Beast” Beasley Collection of Camp Gates. Ex CNG Electronic Auction 134, Lot 452 (March 2006). Ex VAuctions 250, Lot 167 (Aug. 5, 2010). Ex FORVM Ancient Coins (Jun. 2019) There is quite a bit of debate about whether the reverse is supposed to show a camp gate, a city gate or some kind of signal tower / structure. I would need to do some more research to have a strong opinion on the debate but for what it is worth I tend to favor the camp gate or fortress hypothesis (particularly for the coins struck under the tetrarchy). Here is my example of what some consider the beginning of this design struck for Diocletian. Roman Empire Diocletian (AD 284-305) AR Argenteus, Ticinum mint, struck ca. AD 294 Dia.: 20 mm Wt.: 2.92 g Obv.: DIOCLETI-ANVS AVG; Laureate bust right Rev.: VIRTVS MILITVM; Tetrarchs sacrificing in front of fort with 6 turrents Ref.: RIC VI 14a, R3 Below is an example of a Roman camp (Mobene) built in the time of the Tetrarchy. Roman camp design was undergoing a shift to a more defensive focus with changes to the turret design and fewer gates (commonly only one). Top Left: The camp gate. Top Right: View of the turret. Bottom: Layout of the camp. The objects on top of the "campgate" have been referred to as either turrets or signal beacons. I have never seen a visual representation of a beacon that looks anything like these objects. Perhaps it is some type of tripod with a spherical (presumably bronze) fire pit with and a removable lid? Wait… now that I think on it I am pretty sure this type must be evidence of an ancient Roman satellite factory. Left: Unidentified object. Right: Sputnik. I am also not aware of any archaeological remains of a Roman signal beacon even though we know they existed. Here is a scene from Trajan’s column that shows signal towers along the Danube. Admittedly the beacons shown look nothing like the objects on the camp gate. Trajan’s Column Scenes Below are a few references I have found that discuss these campgate types. References that tend to favor a campgate / turret interpretation https://www.beastcoins.com/Topical/Architecture/Campgate.htm This is a great reference with lots of images from all the mints that struck this reverse type. There is also some great commentary on the main page about the different theories with the author’s thoughts on each. References that tend to favor a signal tower / fire beacon interpretation https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316256366_Campgate_Bronzes_and_Roman_Fire_Signalling References that discuss a provincial city gate connection https://www.jstor.org/stable/43580632?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents General Reference – Coin Photos http://www.forumancientcoins.com/dougsmith/acmcampgate.html http://www.campgatecoins.com/ .............................................................. With that I challenge you to show me all your camp gates. To the specialists, feel free to point out any details that us non-specialist might not be aware of. Also, please post links to any relevant references that discuss theories related to this type that I may have missed.