There is an enormous number of Roman deities, but the core of the Roman pantheon consisted of the dei consentes, “the twelve great gods of the city whose golden images stand in the forum, six male and as many female” (Varro: Res Rusticae I.1). According to Martianus Capella, Ennius had already listed these twelve deities in his Annales in the 3rd century BC. Livy writes of a lectisternium, a ritual banquet held for the twelve: “Six couches were publicly exhibited; one for Jupiter and Juno, another for Neptune and Minerva, a third for Mars and Venus, a fourth for Apollo and Diana, a fifth for Vulcan and Vesta, and the sixth for Mercury and Ceres.” (Livy: Ab urbe condita XIII.10). Without further ado, here is my set of the twelve dei consentes: Below are full images of the coins in the set as well as short write-ups on the respective gods and goddesses Jupiter is father of many other Olympian deities and god of the sky, thunder, politics, power, and the state. He is typically depicted as a bearded middle-aged man; his most common attributes are lightning bolts, an eagle, a sceptre, and a figure of Victory. On my coin, he is named Iovis conservator (‘Jupiter the Preserver’). Other epithets of Jupiter include custos (‘guardian’), victor (‘the victorious’), and propugnator (‘defender’). The coin below, though in a somewhat lower grade than some of my other deities, is a personal favorite: its depiction of Jupiter almost certainly copies the statue of Jupiter at the Roman Capitol (see Lichtenberger: Severus Pius Augustus, Leiden: Brill 2011, 178–181). This makes it the perfect type for a collection of the dei consentes. Also, RIC 130 is rather scarce. Septimius Severus, Roman Empire, denarius, 197–198 AD, Rome mint. Obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, head of Septimius Severus, laureate, r. Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI; Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and sceptre. 17.5mm, 3.30g. Ref: RIC IV.1 Septimius Severus 130. Ex FSR 111, lot 257. Juno is the wife of Jupiter and mother of Mars and Vulcan. She appears in a variety of roles as fertility deity, as queen, and as warlike protectress. Her epithets on imperial coins include regina (‘ruler’), lucina (as goddess of childbirth), conservatrix (‘preserver’) and martialis (as mother of Mars in her warlike aspect). My coin shows her in her matronal and regal aspect as Iuno regina with veil, sceptre, patera, and peacock. This corresponds to the way in which she appears in the Capitoline Triad. My reverse type first appeared for Hadrian’s wife Sabina and afterwards became a favorite with Roman empresses. Julia Domna, Roman Empire, denarius, 196–211 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA; bust of Julia Domna, draped, r. Rev: IVNO, Iuno standing l., holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet l. 18mm, 3.20g. Ref: RIC IV Septimius Severus 559. Neptune is a brother of Jupiter and god of the seas and of water. He is usually portrayed as a bearded middle-aged man, often wielding a trident and accompanied by dolphins, hippocamps, or other sea creatures. Neptune appears on Roman Imperial coins mostly in reference to travel by sea or to naval campaigns and victories. In this role, he often rests his foot on a prow or globe to symbolize naval power. My coin, as Mattingly concludes in RIC, likely refers to Septimius Severus’ campaign to Britain: Septimius Severus, Roman Empire, denarius, 210 AD, Rome mint. Obv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG; head of Septimius Severus, laureate, r. Rev: P M TR P XVIII COS III P P; Neptune, naked except for cloak over l. shoulder and r. arm, standing l., r. foot set on globe, holding trident in l. hand. 19 mm., 3,54 g Ref: RIC IV Septimius Severus 234. Ex Savoca, Blue Auction 29, lot 1485. Minerva is the Roman equivalent of Athena, daughter of Jupiter and the titaness Metis. She is the goddess of wisdom, knowledge and strategy. Thus, she is the patron deity of commerce, craftspeople, teachers, scholars, and poets. Together with Jupiter and Juno, Minerva forms the Capitoline Triad. Minerva’s animal is the owl, and she is typically portrayed in full Corinthian battle armor with shield and spear. Especially under Domitian, hundreds of types showing Minerva were minted (@David Atherton and @Orfew have quite a few to show). I personally find this almost modernistic looking Severan depiction of Minerva very elegant: Septimius Severus, Roman Empire, AR denarius, 195 AD, Rome mint. Obv: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP V; head of Septimius Severus, laureate, r. Rev: P M TR P III COS II P P; Minerva, helmeted, draped to feet, standing l., holding spear downward in r. hand and round shield at side in l. hand. 18mm, 3.15g. Ref: RIC IV.1 Septimius Severus 61. Ex AMCC 2, lot 451. Mars, son of Jupiter and Juno, is the god of war and guardian of soldiers and the army, but also the protector of farmers. He is usually depicted as an armed warrior. His most common epithets include ultor (‘avenger’), victor (‘the victorious’), propugnator (‘defender’) and pacator (‘conqueror’). My denarius shows him in his most sympathetic role as Mars pacifer, the warrior who brings, protects, and preserves peace. His peaceful intent is symbolized by the branch Mars holds out, and by his spear pointing to the ground. Severus Alexander, Roman Empire, AR denarius, 224 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG; bust of Severus Alexander, laureate and draped, r. Rev: P M TR P III COS P P; Mars standing l., helmeted and in military attire, holding spear and branch. 18mm, 3.21g. Ref: RIC RIC IV Severus Alexander 37. Ex @TheRed collection; ex AMCC 2, lot 174. Venus, born of sea-foam, is the goddess of love, beauty, and desire. She is depicted as a beautiful woman, often holding an apple or a dove and accompanied by Cupid. Her epithets on Roman coins include felix (“the lucky one”), genetrix (“the mother”), and caelestis (“the heavenly one”). The popular type below shows the goddess in her aspect as Venus victrix (“Venus the Victorious”), dressed somewhat lasciviously, holding a palm branch and an apple as a reference to her victory in the Judgement of Paris. My example is perhaps a bit more worn than I would have preferred, but with this type, well-proportioned engraving seems more important than grade. Julia Domna, Roman Empire, denarius, 193–196 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG; bust of Julia Domna, draped, r. Rev: VENERI VICTR, Venus standing with back turned, head r., holding apple in r. hand and palm in l., resting l. elbow on column. 18mm, 4.13g. Ref: RIC IV Septimius Severus 536. Ex Savoca, 22nd Blue Auction, lot 1531.