A Roman Pantheon: The Dei Consentes

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Orielensis, Jul 6, 2020.

  1. Orielensis

    Orielensis Well-Known Member

    For quite some time now, I’ve been building a collection of denarii and antoniniani showing Roman gods and goddesses on the reverse.

    There is an enormous number of Roman deities, but the core of the Roman pantheon consisted of the dei consentes, “the twelve great gods of the city whose golden images stand in the forum, six male and as many female” (Varro: Res Rusticae I.1). According to Martianus Capella, Ennius had already listed these twelve deities in his Annales in the 3rd century BC. Livy writes of a lectisternium, a ritual banquet held for the twelve: “Six couches were publicly exhibited; one for Jupiter and Juno, another for Neptune and Minerva, a third for Mars and Venus, a fourth for Apollo and Diana, a fifth for Vulcan and Vesta, and the sixth for Mercury and Ceres.” (Livy: Ab urbe condita XIII.10).

    Without further ado, here is my set of the twelve dei consentes:
    Pantheon Poster.png

    Below are full images of the coins in the set as well as short write-ups on the respective gods and goddesses

    Jupiter is father of many other Olympian deities and god of the sky, thunder, politics, power, and the state. He is typically depicted as a bearded middle-aged man; his most common attributes are lightning bolts, an eagle, a sceptre, and a figure of Victory. On my coin, he is named Iovis conservator (‘Jupiter the Preserver’). Other epithets of Jupiter include custos (‘guardian’), victor (‘the victorious’), and propugnator (‘defender’).
    The coin below, though in a somewhat lower grade than some of my other deities, is a personal favorite: its depiction of Jupiter almost certainly copies the statue of Jupiter at the Roman Capitol (see Lichtenberger: Severus Pius Augustus, Leiden: Brill 2011, 178–181). This makes it the perfect type for a collection of the dei consentes. Also, RIC 130 is rather scarce.
    Rom – Septimius Severus, Denar, Jupiter sitzend .png
    Septimius Severus, Roman Empire, denarius, 197–198 AD, Rome mint. Obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, head of Septimius Severus, laureate, r. Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI; Jupiter seated left, holding Victory and sceptre. 17.5mm, 3.30g. Ref: RIC IV.1 Septimius Severus 130. Ex FSR 111, lot 257.

    Juno is the wife of Jupiter and mother of Mars and Vulcan. She appears in a variety of roles as fertility deity, as queen, and as warlike protectress. Her epithets on imperial coins include regina (‘ruler’), lucina (as goddess of childbirth), conservatrix (‘preserver’) and martialis (as mother of Mars in her warlike aspect). My coin shows her in her matronal and regal aspect as Iuno regina with veil, sceptre, patera, and peacock. This corresponds to the way in which she appears in the Capitoline Triad. My reverse type first appeared for Hadrian’s wife Sabina and afterwards became a favorite with Roman empresses.
    Rom – Julia Domna, Denar, Juno.png
    Julia Domna, Roman Empire, denarius, 196–211 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA; bust of Julia Domna, draped, r. Rev: IVNO, Iuno standing l., holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet l. 18mm, 3.20g. Ref: RIC IV Septimius Severus 559.

    Neptune is a brother of Jupiter and god of the seas and of water. He is usually portrayed as a bearded middle-aged man, often wielding a trident and accompanied by dolphins, hippocamps, or other sea creatures. Neptune appears on Roman Imperial coins mostly in reference to travel by sea or to naval campaigns and victories. In this role, he often rests his foot on a prow or globe to symbolize naval power. My coin, as Mattingly concludes in RIC, likely refers to Septimius Severus’ campaign to Britain:
    Rom – Septimius Severus, Denar, Neptun (2).png
    Septimius Severus, Roman Empire, denarius, 210 AD, Rome mint. Obv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG; head of Septimius Severus, laureate, r. Rev: P M TR P XVIII COS III P P; Neptune, naked except for cloak over l. shoulder and r. arm, standing l., r. foot set on globe, holding trident in l. hand. 19 mm., 3,54 g Ref: RIC IV Septimius Severus 234. Ex Savoca, Blue Auction 29, lot 1485.

    Minerva is the Roman equivalent of Athena, daughter of Jupiter and the titaness Metis. She is the goddess of wisdom, knowledge and strategy. Thus, she is the patron deity of commerce, craftspeople, teachers, scholars, and poets. Together with Jupiter and Juno, Minerva forms the Capitoline Triad. Minerva’s animal is the owl, and she is typically portrayed in full Corinthian battle armor with shield and spear. Especially under Domitian, hundreds of types showing Minerva were minted (@David Atherton and @Orfew have quite a few to show). I personally find this almost modernistic looking Severan depiction of Minerva very elegant:
    Rom – Septimius Severus, Denar, Minerva (neu).png
    Septimius Severus, Roman Empire, AR denarius, 195 AD, Rome mint. Obv: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP V; head of Septimius Severus, laureate, r. Rev: P M TR P III COS II P P; Minerva, helmeted, draped to feet, standing l., holding spear downward in r. hand and round shield at side in l. hand. 18mm, 3.15g. Ref: RIC IV.1 Septimius Severus 61. Ex AMCC 2, lot 451.

    Mars, son of Jupiter and Juno, is the god of war and guardian of soldiers and the army, but also the protector of farmers. He is usually depicted as an armed warrior. His most common epithets include ultor (‘avenger’), victor (‘the victorious’), propugnator (‘defender’) and pacator (‘conqueror’). My denarius shows him in his most sympathetic role as Mars pacifer, the warrior who brings, protects, and preserves peace. His peaceful intent is symbolized by the branch Mars holds out, and by his spear pointing to the ground.
    Rom – Severus Alexander, Denar, Mars stehend mit Zweig (neu).png
    Severus Alexander, Roman Empire, AR denarius, 224 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG; bust of Severus Alexander, laureate and draped, r. Rev: P M TR P III COS P P; Mars standing l., helmeted and in military attire, holding spear and branch. 18mm, 3.21g. Ref: RIC RIC IV Severus Alexander 37. Ex @TheRed collection; ex AMCC 2, lot 174.

    Venus, born of sea-foam, is the goddess of love, beauty, and desire. She is depicted as a beautiful woman, often holding an apple or a dove and accompanied by Cupid. Her epithets on Roman coins include felix (“the lucky one”), genetrix (“the mother”), and caelestis (“the heavenly one”). The popular type below shows the goddess in her aspect as Venus victrix (“Venus the Victorious”), dressed somewhat lasciviously, holding a palm branch and an apple as a reference to her victory in the Judgement of Paris. My example is perhaps a bit more worn than I would have preferred, but with this type, well-proportioned engraving seems more important than grade.
    Rom – Julia Domna, denar, Venus v. hinten (neuestes Foto).png
    Julia Domna, Roman Empire, denarius, 193–196 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG; bust of Julia Domna, draped, r. Rev: VENERI VICTR, Venus standing with back turned, head r., holding apple in r. hand and palm in l., resting l. elbow on column. 18mm, 4.13g. Ref: RIC IV Septimius Severus 536. Ex Savoca, 22nd Blue Auction, lot 1531.
     
    Last edited: Jul 6, 2020
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  3. Orielensis

    Orielensis Well-Known Member

    Apollo, depicted as a beautiful young man, is the deity of the sun and of light, of music and the arts, and of prophecy, oracles, and truth. He is also associated with archery and healing, and is the patron of herdsmen and shepherds. On Roman coins, he often plays the lyre, sits on an omphalos (i.e. the sacred navel stone of Delphi), or carries bow and arrow. Depictions of Apollo are oftentimes complex in iconography – here is an informative website on this topic. My coin, a denarius of Caracalla, shows Apollo leaning on a lyre, which is set on a short column to make this posture possible, and holding out a branch of laurel, Apollo’s sacred tree from which wreaths were wrought for the winners of athletic and artistic competitions.
    Rom – Caracalla, denar, Apollo mit Leier.png
    Caracalla, Roman Empire, denarius, 215 AD, Rome mint. Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM; laureate head of Caracalla r. Rev: P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P; Apollo, naked except for cloak flying behind, standing l., holding branch in extended r. hand and with l. hand lyre set on altar. 21mm, 3.04g. Ref: RIC IV Caracalla 254. Ex @Finn235 ; ex Leu.

    Diana
    , virgin goddess of wild animals, hunting, fertility, and the moon, is known best in her aspect as a youthful divine huntress carrying bow and arrow and accompanied by deer. Like this she is depicted, for example, on different Antonine types as well as large issue of Gallienus. Probably more common, though, are depictions of her as Diana lucifera (‘Diana the Bringer of Light’), showing Diana as the moon goddess carrying a lighted torch through the darkness of night:
    Rom – Julia Domna, Denar, Diana.png
    Julia Domna, Roman Empire, AR denarius, 211–217 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG; bust of Julia Domna, draped, r. Rev: DIANA LVCIFERA; Diana, draped, standing l., holding a torch in both hands. 19mm, 3.09g. Ref: RIC IV Caracalla 373A. Ex Kölner Münzkabinett, Germany.

    Vulcan is the god of fire and volcanoes, of the forge and of smithery. As such, he is the patron of all artisans working with metal. One could therefore assume that he was shown frequently on Roman coins, which after all are made from metal. But astonishingly enough, that’s not the case: apart from an exceedingly rare Civil War denarius (RIC I Civil Wars 80) and two equally rare antoniniani by Claudius II (RIC V Claudius Gothicus 215/224), Vulcan only appears on this issue by Valerian I, which was also struck for his son Gallienus. On these coins, which ironically often suffer from poor workmanship, Vulcan is shown with the tools of his trade: hammer, pincers, and anvil. He also wears a pileus, the conical cap of a free craftsman:
    Rom – Valerian I, Antoninian, Vulcan, DEO VOLKANO.png
    Valerian I, Roman Empire, AR antoninianus, 258 AD, Lugdunum mint. Obv: Obv: VALERIANVS P F AVG; bust of Valerian I, radiate, draped, l. Rev: DEO VOLKANO; Vulcan, draped, wearing pilos, standing l. in temple, holding hammer in r. hand and pincers in l. hand; at his feet l., anvil. 22mm, 3.16g. Ref: RIC V Valerian 5. Ex Aux Potins Senons, Sens, France.


    Vesta, a sister of Jupiter, is the virgin goddess of the home, the hearth, and the family. The Temple of Vesta at the Forum, where the sacred fire and the palladium were kept, was one of the most important religious sites in Rome. It was cared for by the Vestals, virgin priestesses recruited from the leading patrician families. On this coin, Vesta sancta (“Vesta the Holy One”) is shown wearing priestly garments, holding a sceptre and sacrificing from a patera. The type was struck only under Septimius Severus:
    Rom – Julia Domna, Denar, Vestae Sanctae (neuestes Foto).png
    Julia Domna, Roman Empire, AR denarius, 196–211 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA; bust of Julia Domna, draped, r. Rev: VESTAE SANCTAE; Vesta standing l., holding patera and sceptre. 17.5mm, 3.08g. Ref: RIC IV Septimius Severus 587. Ex Salzburger Münzhandlung, Austria.

    Mercury is the god of communication, messages, commerce, luck, travelling, trickery, and trade. Portrayed as a young man or boy, his attributes are the caduceus, the purse, and the winged hat and sandals. He is the patron of merchants, messengers, travelers, tricksters, and thieves. It’s unfortunately very hard to find depictions of Mercury on Roman Imperial coins – there are none for the Severan period. For the time being, I’m content with this example struck for Herennius Etruscus. Yet, I might add another Mercury in the future: there were some very interesting Mercury denarii struck under Marcus Aurelius. Unfortunately, they are scarce.
    Rom – Herennius Etruscus, Antoninian, Merkur.jpg
    Herennius Etruscus, Roman Empire, AR antoninianus, 251 AD, Rome mint. Obv: bust of Herennius Etruscus, radiate, draped, r. Rev: PIETAS AVGG; Mercury, nude except for cloak on shoulders, standing l., holding purse and caduceus. 20mm, 3.17g. Ref: RIC IV Trajan Decius 142. Ex JB collection; ex AMCC 2, lot 201 (picture by @Severus Alexander ).

    Ceres, another sister of Jupiter, is the goddess of the earth, of agriculture, fertility, crops, and the harvest. Her Greek pendant Demeter also was the central deity of the Eleusinian Mysteries. As Ceres frugifera (“Ceres the Fruit-Bringer”), she usually holds grain ears or fruit. Often, she also carries a torch, likely as a reference to Eleusis, where the initiates to the mystery cult carried torches (see Spaeth: The Roman Goddess Ceres, Austin: University of Texas Press, 61). Among her other attributes is the cista mystica, and I’m very tempted to see a cista at Ceres’ feet on my coin – yet, this is probably just pareidolia:
    Rom – Julia Domna, Denar, Ceres.png
    Julia Domna, Roman Empire, AR denarius, 196–211 AD, Rome mint. Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA; bust of Julia Domna, draped, r. Rev: CERERI FRVGIF; Ceres, draped, seated l., holding corn-ears in her r. hand and torch in l. hand. 19mm, 3.65g. RIC IV Septimius Severus 546. Ex Leipziger Münzhandlung und Auktion (Höhn), Germany.

    Please show your favorite Roman gods and goddesses!
     
    Last edited: Jul 6, 2020
  4. physics-fan3.14

    physics-fan3.14 You got any more of them.... prooflikes? Supporter

    This was a fascinating read and well illustrated with beautiful coins. Well done!
     
    Carl Wilmont and Orielensis like this.
  5. Severus Alexander

    Severus Alexander Blame my mother. Supporter

    What a wonderful post! I'd wager many of us can do 10 of the 12, but Mercury and Vulcan are both tricky.

    My favourite new depiction of a god is this provincial of Plotinopolis (Faustina II) showing Apollo in a relaxed contrapposto pose. It reminds me of Michelangelo's David:

    00346Q00.jpg
     
  6. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    Great write-up, and fantastic display of your coins! Each God / Goddess has a great synopsis. Thank you, Well done @Orielensis

    Now, you inspired me to look at my coins if I have all the Gods and Goddesses

    JUPITER

    upload_2020-7-6_9-2-47.png
    RR Anon AR Heavy Denarius -Quadrigatus - Didrachm 225-215 BCE Incuse Roma Janus Jupiter driving fast Quadriga Craw 28-3 Sear 31


    JUNO

    upload_2020-7-6_9-5-42.png
    RR C Renius AR Denarius 18mm 3.8g Roma 138 BC Helmeted hd Roma r X - C RENI ROMA Juno driving biga goats r whip reins scepter Cr 231-1


    NEPTUNE

    upload_2020-7-6_9-7-46.png
    RR Lucretius Trio 76 BCE AR Den Neptune dolphin boy S 322 Cr 390-2


    MINERVA

    upload_2020-7-6_9-9-58.png
    RR Anon AE Triens 157-156 BC Minerva Prow Cr 198B-3 S 989 Very Scarce


    MARS

    upload_2020-7-6_9-11-28.png
    RR Anon Ca 240 BCE AR Heavy Quinarius Drachm 16mm 3.0g Rome Helmet Hd Mars r - Horse’s hd sickle Cr 25-2 Syd 25 RSC 34a Very Rare


    VENUS

    upload_2020-7-6_9-12-47.png
    RImp Julius Caesar Lifetime P Sepullius Macer AR Den1st 2 weeks-Mar 44 BCE 4.03g. CAESAR – DICT PERPETVO Veiled - Venus Victory sceptre star Syd 1074a Sear Imperators 107e Cr 480-14 Rare -2
     
    Last edited: Jul 6, 2020
  7. Clavdivs

    Clavdivs Supporter! Supporter

    Amazing coins and write up.. thank you!
    Certainly a set of coins that is inspiring.

    upload_2020-7-6_10-13-6.png
    Claudius II, 268-270
    NEPTVN AVG
    Neptune standing, holding dolphin and trident.
     
  8. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    APOLLO

    upload_2020-7-6_9-14-17.png
    RR 234-231 BCE AR Heavy Denarius - Didrachm Apollo-Horse prancing Crawford 26-1 Sear 28


    DIANA

    upload_2020-7-6_9-15-56.png
    RR Allius Bala 92 BCE AR Den Diana Biga Stags Sear 221 Craw336-1 scarce


    VULCAN

    upload_2020-7-6_9-17-5.png
    RR Samnium Aesernia 263-240 BC AE 20 Vulcan Pilos Tongs Jupiter Biga Left


    VESTA

    upload_2020-7-6_9-19-38.png
    RI Julia Domna 193-195 CE AR Den Vesta Palladium Ex: @dougsmit


    MERCURY

    upload_2020-7-6_9-20-51.png
    RR Anon AE 19mm Semuncia 217-215 Mercury Prow Sear 620 Craw 38-7


    CERES

    upload_2020-7-6_9-22-8.png
    RI Faustina Sr 138-140 CE after 146 CE DIVA AR Denarius m Antoninus Pius 17.4mm 3.2g Ceres torch fold RIC 362 RSC 104
     
  9. Hamilcar Barca

    Hamilcar Barca Active Member

    This is why I love this hobby. So very many ways to form an interesting collection based on themes. Hadrian's travels, two heads on one coin, triumphal from military victories, games from the 1000th anniversary of Rome, and so on.
    Thanks for this thread.
    I am currently collecting a nice set of Roman coins with a reference to Carthage and the Saeculares series.
     
  10. Edessa

    Edessa Supporter! Supporter

    Not one of the 12. SALUS: She was the goddess of safety and well-being (welfare, health and prosperity) of both the individual and the state. She is sometimes equated with the Greek goddess Hygieia, though her functions differ considerably. The high antiquity and importance of her cult is testified by the little-known ceremony of the Augurium Salutis, held every year on August 5 for the preservation of the Roman state. Her cult was spread over all Italy. Literary sources record relationships with Fortuna and Spes. She started to be increasingly associated to Valetudo, the Goddess of Personal Health, which was the real romanized name of Hygieia.

    Later she became more a protector of personal health. Around 180 BCE sacrificial rites in honour of Apollo, Aesculapius, and Salus took place there (Livius XL, 37). There was a statue to Salus in the temple of Concordia. She is first known to be associated with the snake of Aesculapius from a coin of 55 BC minted by M. Acilius. Her festival was celebrated on March 30. (Wikipedia).


    zzz.jpg

    CARACALLA. 198-217 AD. AR Denarius. Struck 199 AD. ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / SAL GEN HVM, Salus standing left, holding serpent-wreathed sceptre and extending hand to kneeling figure before her. RIC IV 42c; BMCRE 169; RSC 558a. Ex CNG 1992.
     
    Last edited: Jul 6, 2020
  11. FitzNigel

    FitzNigel Medievalist Supporter

    Gorgeous coins @Orielensis! I particularly like the Apollo reverse.

    so which was the last one you procured to finish the set, amd which was the first to start it?
     
  12. Orielensis

    Orielensis Well-Known Member

    Thank you for your kind comments and showing your coins, everyone!

    That's a fantastic collection, @Alegandron – especially that quadrigatus is simply stunning.

    @Edessa 's Salus type is now on my list. I very much like the serpent-wreathed sceptre.

    From the set I've shown, Vesta has been staying in my collection for the longest, and Diana arrived last, just two days ago. Yet, this little project was originally inspired by the Apollo coin below, which I bought in the summer of 2018 but eventually "replaced" with the Caracalla denarius you pointed out:
    Rom – Septimius Severus, denar, Apollo.png
    Septimius Severus, Roman Empire, denarius, 194–195 AD, Rome mint. Obv: [L SEPT SEV PERT] AVG IMP IIII, laureate head of Septimius Severus r. Rev: APOLL[INI AVGV]STO, Apollo standing l., holding patera and lyre. 16mm, 1.78g. Ref: RIC IV.1 Septimius Severus 40.
     
  13. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    Thank you very much. And your collection is stunning! Wow, when I was following the progression of your coins, it made me question what I had. You have put together a fantastic collection, and congrats! Wow, it was fun to read and look.

    The Quadrigatus is really a special coin for me. It would had been struck during the Nadir of the Roman Republic. Being full silver, it would had been around when Rome lost 3 MAJOR battles when Hannibal came trundling through Italia. Trebbia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae would had destroyed any other entity. However, Rome struggled on, shrugged off the losses, and went on to WIN. It is an inspiration for me when I "feel" times are tough for me. I struggle on.
     
    Carl Wilmont and Orielensis like this.
  14. DonnaML

    DonnaML Supporter! Supporter

    Examples of seven of the 12, in no particular order:

    MARS

    Hostilian Caesar (son of Trajan Decius), AR Antoninianus, 251 AD, Rome Mint. Obv. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C / Rev. Mars advancing right, holding spear in right hand and shield in left, MARTI PROPVGNATORI. RIC IV-3 177b, RSC IV 15, Sear RCV III 9556 (ill.). 22 mm., 3.65 g

    Hostilian Obverse jpg version.jpg

    Hostilian Reverse jpg version.jpg

    Roman Republic, Q. Thermus M.f., AR Denarius 103 BCE. Obv. Head of Mars left with crested, plumed helmet/ Rev. Roman soldier advancing right, fighting with uplifted sword a barbarian soldier before him, while protecting with shield a fallen comrade at his feet, Q THERM.MF. in exergue (THE and MF in monograms). RSC I Minucia [Q. Minucius Rufus] 19 (ill.), Crawford 319/1, Sear RCV I 198 (ill.), BMCRR Italy 653. 19.4 mm., 3.97 g.

    Roman Republic, Q. Thermus M.f., AR Denarius 103 BCE. RSC I Minucia 19, Crawford 319-1.jpg

    VESTA

    Salonina (wife of Gallienus), Billon Antoninianus, 257-258 AD, Cologne Mint. Obv. Diademed bust draped right, on crescent, SALONINA AVG / Rev. Vesta seated left on throne holding Palladium and transverse scepter, VESTA. RIC V-1 70, RSC IV 142, Sear RCV III 10664. 22 mm., 3.4 g.

    Salonina-Vesta jpg version.jpg
    NEPTUNE

    Roman Republic, L Lucretius Trio, AR Denarius, 76 BCE. Obv. Laureate head of Neptune right, XXXIIII above and trident behind/ Rev. Cupid (or Infant Genius) on dolphin right; L LVCRETIVS TRIO. Crawford 390/2, Sydenham 784, RSC I Lucretia, Sear RCV I 322 (ill.), Harlan, RRM I Ch. 16 at pp. 98-103, BMCRR Rome 3247. 19 mm., 3.9 g.

    Lucretius Trio (boy on dolphin).jpg

    APOLLO

    Gordian III AR Antoninianus, 242-243 AD [TRP V], Rome Mint. Obv. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Rev. Apollo seated left, bare to waist, holding branch with right hand & resting left forearm and elbow on lyre, PM T-R P V COS II PP. RIC IV-3 89, RSC IV 261, Sear RCV III 8648. 22.65 mm., 4.67 g.

    Gordian III Ant. - Apollo reverse - jpg version.jpg

    Roman Republic, Lucius Marcius Censorinus, AR Denarius, 82 BCE. Obv. Laureate head of Apollo right, traces of control mark (unidentifiable) behind / Rev. The satyr Marsyas standing left, gazing upwards, raising right hand and holding wineskin over left shoulder; tall column behind him, surmounted by statue of draped figure (Minerva [RSC] or Victory [Crawford]); L. CENSOR downwards before him. Crawford 363/1d, RSC I Marcia 24d, Sear RCV I 281 (ill.), BMCRR 2657. 18 mm, 3.80 g, 5 h. [The coin refers to the legend of the satyr Marsyas challenging Apollo to a flute-playing contest. As the winner, Apollo got to choose the punishment for the loser -- namely, skinning Marsyas alive. Traditionally, the gens Marcia was descended from Marsyas; hence the reference.]

    Censorinus (Apollo - Marsyas) jpg version Crawford 363-1a.jpg

    DIANA

    Roman Republic, A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus, AR Serrate Denarius, 81 BCE. Obv. Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder, bucranium above [off flan] / Rev. Roman priest standing facing on rocky ground (on Aventine Hill), head left, with right arm extended holding aspergillum, sprinkling heifer [Harlan, RRM I], bull [Crawford & Sear], or ox [RSC] which he is about to sacrifice, a lighted altar between them, A POST - AF - SN • ALBIN [AL in monogram] around. RSC I Postumia 7, Crawford 372/1, Sydenham 745, Sear RCV I 296 (ill.), Harlan, RRM I Ch. 1 at pp. 1-7, BMCRR 2836. 18.54 mm., 3.85 g. Ex. Spink & Sons Ltd. (before 2000 because of address on Spink coin tag; probably before 1974 given citation to Sydenham but not Crawford.)

    Postumius - Albinus (Priest & Ox) jpg version 1.jpg

    JUNO

    Roman Republic, L. Papius, AR Serrate Denarius, 79 BCE. Obv. Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin; control-symbol of lyre behind/ Rev. Gryphon prancing right, control-symbol of lyre-key below, L. PAPI in exergue. Crawford 384/1 (see also Crawford Vol. II Plate LXVII, control-symbol 127 & p. 788), RSC I Papia 1, Sear RCV I 311 (ill.), Harlan, RRM I Ch. 7 at pp. 32-35, BMCRR Rome 2977-3095 [control-symbol pair not in BMCRR]. 19 mm., 3.79 g., 9 h.

    L. Papius - Juno Sospita & Gryphon, jpg version.jpg

    CERES

    Diva Faustina I [Senior] (wife of Antoninus Pius), AR Denarius, prob. 150-160 AD [see Dinsdale, infra at p. 216 -- including this type among coins issued upon and after 10th anniversary of Faustina’s deification]. Obv: Draped bust right, DIVA FAVSTINA / Rev: Ceres, veiled, standing left, holding torch in left hand and holding right hand up in greeting, CONSECRATIO. RIC III 382b corr.*, RSC II 165a, Sear RCV II 4593, Dinsdale 020610 [Dinsdale, Paul H, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar AD 138-161: Antonine Coinage (2018) at p. 249; photo at p. 254]. 17 mm., 3.3 g.

    * RIC III 382b erroneously describes Faustina’s bust on obverse as veiled. (RIC III 382a has different obverse legend [DIVA AVG FAVSTINA]).

    Diva Faustina I - Ceres reverse - jpg version.jpg
     
    Last edited: Jul 8, 2020
  15. DonnaML

    DonnaML Supporter! Supporter

    Four more, bringing the total to 11 of the 12 (I'm missing only Vulcan):

    JUPITER (AND JUNO AGAIN)

    Roman Republic, L. Procilius L.f., AR Denarius, 80 BCE. Obv. Laureate head of Jupiter R., S C behind/ Rev. Juno Sospita advancing R., holding shield in left hand and hurling spear with right hand; snake before; behind, L. PROCILI/F downwards. RSC I Procilia 1 (ill.), Crawford 379/1, Sydenham 771, Sear RCV I 306 (ill.), Harlan, RRM I Ch. 4 at pp. 19-22. BMCRR Rome 3147. 19.5 mm., 3.6 g.

    Procilius - new Obv (Jupiter) 2.jpg

    Procilia-Juno Sospita - New Rev. 2.jpg

    MORE JUPITER

    Licinius I, silvered AE Follis, Siscia Mint (4th Officina) 315-316 AD. Obv. Laureate head right, IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG / Rev. Naked Jupiter standing and facing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe in right hand and leaning on scepter held in left hand; eagle with wreath in beak at his feet left, IOVI CON-SERVATORI. Δ [Delta] in right field, • SIS • in exergue. RIC VII SISCIA 17 (p. 424), Sear RCV IV 15212, Cohen 66. 21 mm., 3.36 g.

    Licinius I - jpg version.jpg
    MINERVA

    Domitian (son of Vespasian) AR Denarius 88-89 AD. Obv. Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TRP VIII/ Rev. Minerva advancing right w/javelin & shield, IMP XIX COS XIIII CENS PPP. RIC II-1 667 (2007 ed.), old RIC II 137 (1926 ed.), RSC II 252, BMCRE 151. 17.78 mm., 3.42 g. Ex: Gorny & Mosch.

    Domitian obverse 88-89 AD, RSC II 252.jpg


    Domitian reverse 88-89 AD, RSC II 252.jpg

    VENUS

    Galeria Valeria (wife of Galerius and daughter of Diocletian). AE Follis, 308-310 AD, Cyzicus Mint (4th Officina). Obv. Diademed and draped bust right, GAL VAL-ERIA AVG / Rev. Venus standing facing, head left, right hand holding up apple, left hand raising drapery over left shoulder, VENERI V-ICTRICI; Δ [Delta = 4th Officina] in left field; MKV [Cyzicus] in exergue. RIC VI Cyzicus 46 (p. 586), Sear RCV IV 14597. 24x26 mm., 5.7 g.

    Galeria Valeria jpg version.jpg

    Julia Mamaea (mother of Severus Alexander), AR Denarius. Obv. Bust draped right wearing diadem (stephane), IVLIA MAMAEA AVG/ Rev. Venus stdg. front, head left, holding helmet & scepter, shield leans against her at left. VENVS VICTRIX. RIC IV-2 358, RSC III 76 (ill.), Sear RCV II 8216 (ill.), BMCRE 713. 20.5 mm., 2.88 g.

    Julia Mamaea AR Denarius.jpg
    MERCURY/HERMES: See my recent posts at https://www.cointalk.com/threads/fi...e-12-olympian-gods.361206/page-4#post-4609272 and https://www.cointalk.com/threads/fi...e-12-olympian-gods.361206/page-4#post-4610327
     
  16. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE Supporter

    Here is my other Vulcan, so that Donna has all 12. :)

    [​IMG]
    Samnium Aesernia AE21 263-240 BCE HN Italy 430 Vulcan - Biga
     
  17. ancientone

    ancientone Well-Known Member

    I feel like the poor step-child asking if I can bring my provincials over to play with.

    zeus.jpg
    Zeus

    hera.jpg
    Hera

    athena.jpg
    Athena

    apollo.JPG
    Apollo

    poseidon.jpg
    Poseidon

    ares.jpg
    Ares

    artemis.jpg
    Artemis

    demeter.jpg
    Demeter

    aphrodite.jpg
    Aphrodite

    hermes.jpg
    Hermes

    More...
     
  18. ancientone

    ancientone Well-Known Member

    heph.png
    Hephaistos on a horribly tooled reverse of an alliance coin from Aphrodisias and Ephesus.

    dio.jpg
    Dionysos
     
  19. dougsmit

    dougsmit Member Supporter

    Since it was mentioned, here is the Aurelius Mercury associated with the Miracle of the Rain in 173 AD. If you look online, you will find conflicting accounts as to the nature of the miracle more or less proving that you can't get a straight story from ancient sources or modern spin artists. The version I prefer credits a prayer to Mercury for bringing a fierce storm in the faces of the enemy and at the backs of the Romans. The coins support the involvement of Mercury largely because the date and depiction of the god rarely seen coincide.
    RELIG AVG IMP VI COS III
    rc2260bb2025.jpg
    From the column of Marcus Aurelius:
    [​IMG]
    By Cristiano64 - Fotografia personale, self made, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2409338
     
  20. Restitutor

    Restitutor Active Member

    Love the crown on Galeria that’s one of my favorites; I’ve seen a more robust version on a Helena coin that I’ve been itching to acquire, she must have wanted to show up her predecessors ;P

    Here are my 2 god/goddess:

    Domitian, Emperor 81-96AD. AR Denarius (20.5mm, 3.40 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck 86 AD. Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing spear and holding shield; to lower right, owl standing right, head facing.

    CB7D8D25-675D-44F1-BCA4-B9D54912B88B.jpeg A8C4CB10-A517-43F2-B727-660888E6A3D7.jpeg

    Mars. Struck in Greece under Octavian. I don’t know much about this coin, it was the first coin I ever got and received it as a gift which kicked off my numismatic addiction.

    8FDE2B04-507A-42A3-9623-B8EAD4BC76CC.jpeg
     
  21. Orielensis

    Orielensis Well-Known Member

    @DonnaML , those are fantastic coins! Vulcan is the hardest of the twelve to find, particularly when looking for aesthetically appealing coins, as you obviously do. Also, I very much like portraits of Juno Sospita, though I have to admit that my first association tends to be Ant Man and not "goat skin worn by a Roman deity:"
    ant-man-the-wasp-comics-cover-1119878.jpeg

    @ancientone , your provincials are of course more than welcome! Especially since this is a field where there is still so much to study and find out, I admire it when other forum members specialize on Roman provincial coinage. The final (1st edition) volume of RIC was published in 1994, while RPC is still waiting to be finished... to me, that makes provincials the current frontier of ancient numismatics.

    @dougsmit , thanks for showing your Mercury denarius. That's exactly the type I was referring to. Apart from the connection to the Miracle of the Rain, I like that Mercury's winged petasos is shown on your coin. Later coins like mine appear to mostly lack this detail.
     
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