While the Oxford half pound is the numismatic epitome of the Royalist or Caviler side of the conflict, the Parliamentarians, or Roundheads, the side that prevailed, also had their distinctive coinage: the coinage of the Commonwealth of England, under the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell. Oliver Cromwell, whose great, great, grand uncle was Thomas Cromwell, chief minister to Henry VIII, was a political leader and military strategist of the New Model Army (1645), who was instrumental in leading the parliamentarian cause during the civil war to their ultimate victory over the royalists, culminating in the trial and execution of Charles I in 1949, and the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1651. Oliver Cromwell is one of the most controversial figures in British history. Critics sight the regicide of Charles I, his virtual monarchical powers as Lord Protector and his harsh treatment of Catholics, especially in Ireland. On the other hand, Milton and Carlyle viewed Cromwell as a hero of liberty and of the representative republican cause. Others viewed him as the champion for the Protestant cause in a profoundly divided England. However, old grudges do die hard. When Charles II, the son of Charles I, returned to England at the start of the Stuart Restoration and following the death of Cromwell and the resignation of his son, the second Lord Protector, Richard Cromwell in 1659, he had Cromwell's body exhumed, hung in chains and beheaded in 1660. The 1653 Commonwealth crown was purchased in 1986, at my first Coinex show in London. I remember the seller, a coin dealer from Lincolnshire, who seemed a bit dismissive of the coin, viewing it as a "stock" coin as I recall. Well, that worked to my advantage, and I have now owned this coin for nearly 35 years. This is the first coin, as I recall, to have the legends in English. England, 1653 Commonwealth Crown Obverse: THE. COMMONWEALTH. OF. ENGLAND, English shield (St. George) in center, surround by a wreath, sun symbol above. Reverse: GOD. WITH. VS, shields of England and Ireland in center, V and date above. 43 mm, 10 h. 29.8 grams Bull 6 The second coin is considered a pattern or medallic issue by some numismatists, though there are examples that show circulation wear, so I think the intent of the mint was to produce these coins for general use. This is the Cromwell crown, dated 1658, with dies produced by Thomas Simon. This particular coin is the overdate variety, 1658/7. On the obverse there is a pronounced die break that runs across the bottom of Cromwell's portrait. This die break appears in other examples, sometimes even more severe, indicating that the obverse die was used beyond its life expectancy. 1658 was the year that Cromwell die, so perhaps the mint decided not to make any additional dies; certainly the returning Stuarts would see to it that they were all destroyed. This coin's legends have reverted to Latin, abandoning the English of the Commonwealth coinage. This coin measures round 38.5 mm, and weighs 30.1 grams KM-D207, S-3226, ESC-10 Please post your Commonwealth coinage, or any other coinage of the period. Thank you.