A Buyid dirham of 'Adud al-Dawla

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Parthicus, May 18, 2024.

  1. Parthicus

    Parthicus Well-Known Member

    Buyids (Buwayhids). Shiraz mint. AR drachm. 'Adud al-Dawla (338-372 AH/949-983 CE), dated 357 AH (967-8 CE). Obverse and reverse: lengthy inscriptions in Arabic, naming 'Adud al-Dawla and citing Rukn al-Dawla as nominal overlord. Album 1550.1. This coin Pars Coins eSale 16, lot 122 (March 7, 2024).

    The Buyids were a dynasty originating in the mountainous Daylam region of northern Iran which ruled Persia and Iraq (and sometimes various surrounding territories) from 934 to 1062 CE. The history of the dynasty is very complicated, as there were usually multiple simultaneous rulers, each claiming the title of emir (governor), and usually operating out of the capitols of Shiraz in Fars Province (south-central Iran), al-Muhammadiyah (Rayy) in northern Iran, and Madinat al-Salaam (Baghdad) in Iraq. Often one of them would be recognized as the dominant one, in theory superior to the others, but in practice they were essentially independent. Although the Buyid rulers were Shia, they generally maintained good relations with the Sunni community, and sought official recognition from the (Sunni) Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad, who by this time exercised solely religious power.

    The ruler who issued this coin was born with the extremely Persian name Fannah Khusraw in 936 CE, the son of the Buyid emir of Rayy, Rukn al-Dawla. When Fannah was just 12, his childless uncle Imad al-Dawla, emir of Shiraz, named him as his successor. Imad al-Dawla died the following year, and Fannah Khusraw took up his uncle's throne. He asked the Caliph to grant him the title "Taj al-Dawla" (Crown of the State; however, as that could imply that Hannah was claiming to be the dominant Buyid emir, he was instead granted the title 'Adud al-Dawla (Pillar of the State), by which he is usually known. Rukn al-Dawla claimed the title of most senior Buyid emir, which was recognized by both 'Adud al-Dawla and the emir of Iraq, Mu'izz al-Dawla. In 967, 'Adud al-Dawla started a series of campaigns that resulted in his conquest of Kerman and much territory in southern Iran, and also Oman. in 974 Mu'izz' son and successor as emir of Iraq, Izz al-Dawla, was trapped in the city of Wasit by mutinous troops. 'Adud rushed to his rescue, but forced Izz to abdicate and name 'Adud his successor. Rukn was angered by this, and forced his son to restore Izz to the Iraqi throne. After Rukn died in 976, 'Adud formed alliances with several other rulers (including his brother Fakhr al-Dawla, who had inherited some of their father's northern territories) and started plotting again against Izz. In 977, 'Adud invaded Iraq and defeated Izz. Izz asked for permission to head into exile in Syria, which was granted, but along the way Izz was convinced to change his mind and restart the war. 'Adud defeated Izz in battle near Samarra in 978, and had Izz executed. 'Adud then consolidated his gains in Iraq. In 979, 'Adud fought against Fakhr al-Dawla and took his territory. His other brother, Mu'ayyad, then voluntarily offered to surrender the city of Rayy to him. This left 'Adud in charge of the entire Buyid realm. 'Adud died in 983, while peace negotiations were being carried out with the Byzantines. His reign is generally considered the high point of the Buyid dynasty. 'Adud sponsored many public building projects, including a major dam near Shiraz and a large hospital in Baghdad. He was religiously tolerant, employing a number of Christians and even Zoroastrians in the government service. He was interested in Persian culture, and claimed to be descended from the Sasanian emperor Varhran V (420-438).

    This coin is well-struck (the entire lengthy inscription fits on the flan, with just a couple of small areas of flatness), which according to Album is usual for this ruler, though not for the Buyid series as a whole. It is overall a nice coin, and the $40 winning bid was very reasonable. Please post whatever related coins you have.
  2. Avatar

    Guest User Guest

    to hide this ad.
  3. Croatian Coin Collector

    Croatian Coin Collector Supporter! Supporter

    Buyid Gold Dinar of Adud al-Dawla from 979 (minted in Suq-al-Ahvaz):

Draft saved Draft deleted

Share This Page