I feel that these large, impressive coins represent well the height of the Byzantine Empire, when, driven by the ambition of Justinian, it was close to re-establishing total Roman control over western Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Justinian I, Byzantine Empire AE follis Obv: D N IVSTINI-ANVS P P AVG, diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield, cross to right Rev. Large M, cross above, officina letter Δ below, ANNO to left, XX to right, mintmark QHЧΠ in ex Mint: Theopolis (Antioch) Date: 546/7 (year 20) Ref: SB 220 Size: 19.9 gr., 39 mm The early to mid 6th century AD was not kind to the city of Antioch (near modern Antakya, Turkey), the "Cradle of Christianity" and one of the principal cities of the Roman Empire. In 526, the last year of the reign of Justin, a massive earthquake and subsequent fire largely destroyed the city. It was reported that only the houses built close to the mountain that bordered Antioch stayed standing. The earthquake killed an estimated 250,000 people in Antioch and the surrounding areas, with the Patriarch of Antioch being one of the fatalities; he had fallen into a cauldron full of hot pitch and was burned to death, with only his head untouched. Many of the casualties had travelled to the city to celebrate Ascension Day. The fire that engulfed the city afterwards created a firestorm that finished off much of what remained after the earthquake itself, including the Great Church of Antioch, called the Domus Aurea, which had been constructed 200 years previously during the reign of Constantine the Great. Lawlessness, theft, and murder abounded in Antioch after the disaster. (Possible depiction of the Domus Aurea of Antioch, to the right of the imperial palace) Rescue efforts were established, but many of those rescued from the rubble succumbed to their injuries. The imperial government in Constantinople provided funds for the relief and reconstruction of the city, with the new Patriarch of Antioch leading these efforts. But most of what was rebuilt was subsequently destroyed in another earthquake two years later. Around this time, Antioch was renamed (either by Justinian or what remained of the city's population) Theopolis, "city of God". Many of the public buildings (including the Domus Aurea) were rebuilt/restored under Justinian's rule. (Justinian I) Another disaster struck in the form of a Persian invasion. Only 12 years after the 528 earthquake, the Sassanian king Khosrau I invaded the Roman east in response to an appeal from the Ostrogoths to open a second front for the Byzantines and weaken their Italian invasion. Khosrau and his army made their way to Antioch, which fell after a siege. Its remaining inhabitants were taken by the Persians to help build and found a new city in the Persian Empire: Weh Antiok Khosrow ("better than Antioch, Khosrow built this"). After the Persian invasion, Justinian embarked on a second rebuilding and restoration of the city, which is described by Procopius in On Buildings: Above all he made Antioch, which is now called Theopolis, both fairer and stronger by far than it had been formerly. In ancient times its circuit-wall was both too long and absolutely full of many turnings, in some places uselessly enclosing the level ground and in others the summits of the mountain, and for this reason it was exposed to attack in a number of places. But the Emperor Justinian, contracting this wall as would best serve the need, carefully remade it so as to guard, not the same districts as before, but only the city itself. As for the lower part of the circuit-wall, where the city was dangerously spread out (since it lay in a soft plain and could not be defended because of a superfluity of wall), he changed its course by drawing it inward as much as possible, it having gained protection by being compressed. And the River Orontes, which had flowed past the city, as it formerly was, in a winding course, he thrust over so that it ran in a new bed, hugging the circuit-wall. He did this by winding the stream round again by means of an artificial channel as near the wall as possible. In this way he both relieved the city of the danger arising from its excessive size and recovered the protection afforded by the Orontes. And by building other bridges there he furnished new means of crossing the river; and after changing its stream for as great a distance as was necessary, he then restored it to its former course. The upper part, in the mountainous portion, he managed as follows: on the summit of the mountain which they call Orocassias there happened to be a rock outside the wall and very close to it, nearly matching in height the circuit-wall in this place and making it quite vulnerable. It was from this point in fact that the city was taken by Chosroes, as is related in my description of the event. The region within the circuit-wall was for the most part bare and difficult to traverse, for high rocks and impassable ravines divide up that district, so that the paths from that place have no outlet. Thus the wall there is just as if it belonged to some other city and not to Antioch at all. So he bade a long farewell to the rock, which, being close to the wall, was fiendishly devised to make the wall easy to capture, and decided to build the defences of the city as far away from it as possible, having learned from the experience of events the folly of those who had built the city in former times. Moreover he made quite level the region within the wall, which formerly had been precipitous, building ascents there which would in the future be passable, not only for men on foot, but for cavalry, and would even serve as waggon-roads. He also built baths and reservoirs on these hills inside the wall. And he dug a cistern in each tower, remedying by means of rain-water the want of water which had previously existed there. It is proper to describe also what he did with the torrent which comes down from these mountains. Two precipitous mountains rise above the city, approaching each other quite closely. Of these they call the one Orocassias and the other is called Staurin. Where they come to an end they are joined by a glen and ravine which lies between them, which produces a torrent, when it rains, called Onopnictes. This, coming down from a height, swept over the circuit-wall and on occasion rose to a great volume, spreading into the streets of the city and doing ruinous damage to those who lived in that district. But even for this the Emperor Justinian found the remedy, in the following way: Before that part of the circuit-wall which happens to lie nearest to the ravine out of which the torrent was borne against the fortifications, he built an immense wall or dam, which reached roughly from the hollow bed of the ravine to each of the two mountains, so that the stream should no longer be able to sweep on when it was at full flood, but should collect for a considerable distance back and form a lake there. And by constructing sluice-gates in this wall he contrived that the torrent, flowing through these, should lose its force gradually, checked by this artificial barrier, and no longer violently assault the circuit-wall with its full stream, and so overflow it and damage the city, but should gently and evenly glide on in the manner I have described and, with this means of outflow, should proceed through the channel wherever the inhabitants of former times would have wished to conduct it if it had been so manageable. This, then, was what the Emperor Justinian accomplished concerning the circuit-wall of Antioch. He also rebuilt the whole city, which had been completely burned by the enemy. For since everything was everywhere reduced to ashes and levelled to the ground, and since many mounds of ruins were all that was left standing of the burned city, it became impossible for the people of Antioch to recognise the site of each person's house, when first they carried out all the debris, and to clear out the remains of a burned house; and since there were no longer public stoas or colonnaded courts in existence anywhere, nor any market-place remaining, and since the side-streets no longer marked off the thoroughfares of the city, they did not any longer dare to build any house. But the Emperor without any delay transported the debris as far as possible from the city, and thus freed the air and the ground of all encumbrances; then he first of all covered the cleared land of the city everywhere with stones each large enough to load a wagon. Next he laid it out with stoas and market-places, and dividing all the blocks of houses by means of streets, and making water-channels and fountains and sewers, all those of which the city now boasts, he built theatres and baths for it, ornamenting it with all the other public buildings by means of which the prosperity of a city is wont to be shewn. He also, by bringing in a multitude of artisans and craftsmen, made it more easy and less laborious for the inhabitants to build their own houses. Thus it was brought about that Antioch has become more splendid now than it formerly was. Moreover, he built there a great Church to the Mother of God. The beauty of this, and its magnificence in every respect, it is impossible to describe; he also honoured it with an income of a very large sum. Moreover, he built an immense Church for the Archangel Michael. He made provision likewise for the poor of the place who were suffering from maladies, providing buildings for them and all the means for the care and cure of their ailments, for men and women separately, and he made no less provision for strangers who might on occasion be staying in the city. (retrieved from https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/procopius/buildings/2*.html ) Around 540 or 541, a pandemic of plague that would later be known as the Plague of Justinian, reached Antioch, further reducing the population and causing additional hardship and decline to the city. More earthquakes followed in the 550s, and later, in the next century, the Muslim Arabs would conquer the city for their caliphate. (Roman road connecting Antioch and Chalcis) (Church of St. Peter, on Mount Starius, near Antioch) Sources for information/pictures: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/526_Antioch_earthquake https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antioch https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justinian_I https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domus_Aurea_(Antioch) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine–Sasanian_War_of_572–591 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/540 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Church_of_Saint_Peter http://augustuscoins.com/ed/interesting/Justinian.html https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/procopius/buildings/2*.html Please feel free to post any coins or information related to Justinian, Antioch/Theopolis, Khosrau I, plague, earthquakes/disasters, or anything else you feel is relevant!