It's the Seljuk Turks. (Aaah!)

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Parthicus, May 22, 2022.

  1. Parthicus

    Parthicus Well-Known Member

    Seljuqs Sulayman II horseman.jpg
    Seljuks of Rum. Sulayman II (592-600 AH/ 1196-1204 AD). AE fals (30 mm). Obverse: Horseman right. Reverse: Arabic inscription. Album 1205.2. This coin: Purchased at Baltimore Whitman Expo, November 2021 from Tamco Numismatics.

    The Seljuks of Rum were originally a branch of the larger Seljuk Empire, a Turkish state which controlled a large area in Persia and Central Asia. After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuks acquired much territory in central Anatolia from the Byzantines (Eastern Romans, known in Turkish as Rum). The newly acquired territory quickly broke away, however, and remained independent of the main Seljuk state. The early Seljuk rulers of Rum were heavily involved in the Crusades. The issuer of this coin, Sulayman II, came to power in 1196 AD by overthrowing his brother Kaykhusraw I. The main event of his reign was a war with Georgia. Queen Tamar of Georgia sent a massive army under her husband, David Soslan, who made a bold attack on Sulayman's camp. There were heavy casualties on both sides, but Sulayman was wounded and his army forced to retreat. Sulayman died in 1204 and was succeeded by his son Kilij Arslan III, but his unpopularity allowed Kaykhusraw to made a comeback and overthrow his nephew. In 1243 the Seljuks of Rum were forced to become vassals to the Ilkhans (Mongols in Persia) and by 1308 the state broke up into many smaller Anatolian Beyliks (Turkish principalities), including the Ottomans, who went on to some success.

    The Seljuks of Rum are familiar to numismatists for two major pictorial types, silver dirhams depicting a lion-and-sun motif and bronze fals depicting a horseman. Several different rulers issued the horseman bronzes: the coins of Sulayman II are usually struck on rather large flans, including this specimen. It is a bit nicer-looking in hand than I was able to capture in the photo (the surfaces are quite dark, making photography harder), but hopefully you can still appreciate the design. Please post whatever related coins you have.
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  3. Hrefn

    Hrefn Well-Known Member

    upload_2022-5-22_17-38-13.jpeg I have posted this coin before so I hope you will indulge me in showing it again. upload_2022-5-22_17-42-56.jpeg
    Several fascinating features on this coin. The old ticket says it was the only coin of the group with facial features. The archer has clear stirrups. The arrow has a crescentic head, and he is holding two more arrows in his right hand as he draws, a hallmark of rapid shooting.

    Qilij Arslan IV was strangled in 1265 AD at the instigation of Pervane, a powerful Persian noble who had facilitated Qilij Arslan’s rise to power, but subsequently feared he might turn against Pervane.

    Sivas, formerly Sebasteia or Sebaste, was the home of 40 legionary soldiers martyred by Licinius in 320 AD. It was also the first major city in Asia Minor plundered and its inhabitants slaughtered by the Seljuks in 1059 AD, before the battle of Manzikert in 1071 AD. Later, with Iconium, the city served as a Seljuk capitol.

    Citing the Caliph al-Mustasim, who was soon killed by the Mongols in 1258 AD.
  4. dltsrq

    dltsrq Grumpy Old Man

    A fun type! In case you're wondering, the date 595 is reasonably clear in the reverse margin, written out in words (w/o mint name as always). The main legend is:

    al-sultan al-qahir
    Sulayman Shah
    bin Qilij Arslan

    I haven't seen Georges in person in a decade now. Quite a guy! His table was always my first stop at NYINC and the Summer ANA.
    DonnaML and Parthicus like this.
  5. Hrefn

    Hrefn Well-Known Member

    Romanus IV was the loser, to Alp Arslan, of the battle of Manzikert. He was a previously a successful general. Eudokia Makembolitissa was the widow of the prior emperor Constantine X, who died in May, 1067. She promoted Romanus to the throne and married him on New Year’s Day 1068, at least in part hoping that he would be an effective counter to the Seljuk’s advances in Asia Minor. upload_2022-5-22_18-21-26.jpeg
    Here is the Imperial couple blessed by Christ. Eudokia seems to have been a bit of a babe, if we can trust Wikipedia. upload_2022-5-22_18-23-48.png
    Romanus lost at Manzikert chiefly on account of perfidy on the part of some of his mercenary troops, and flat out treachery on the part of the General commanding the rearguard of the army, Andronikos son of John Doukas. The fratricidal struggles of the the Byzantine elite probably were a major contribution to the decline of the empire, and the success of the Seljuks in Asia Minor.
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  6. Alegandron

    Alegandron "ΤΩΙ ΚΡΑΤΙΣΤΩΙ..." ΜΕΓΑΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ, June 323 BCE

    Kaykhusraw II
    AR dirham
    Siwas AH 639 A-1218
    lion sunface star L
  7. Orielensis

    Orielensis Supporter! Supporter

    An interesting figural bronze!

    All my Seljuq coins are later. Most were minted when the Seljuqs were already vassals of the Ilkhanate:

    Orient, MA – Rumseldschuken, Kaykhusraw II, AR dirham, 1241–1242, A-1218.png
    Seljuq Sultanate of Rum, Kaykhusraw II, citing caliph al-Mustansir, AR dirham, 1241–1242 AD (639 AH), Qunya (Konya) mint. Obv: Kufic legend citing caliph: "al-imam al-mustansir billah amir al-mu'minin;" lion r. with sunface above. Rev: name and titles of Kaykhusraw II in Naskh: "as-sultan al-azam / ghiyath al-dunya wa ud-din / kay khusraw bin kay qubadh;" around, mint and date: "duriba bi-quniyat / sanat tis' / thel[athin] sittm'iat." 23mm, 2.97g. Ref: Album 1218.

    Orient, MA – Rumseldschuken, Kayaka'us II, AR dirham, 1248–1249 AD, A-1223.1.png
    Seljuq Sultanate of Rum, Kayaka'us II (1st reign), citing caliph al-Musta'sim, AR dirham, 1248–1249 AD (646 AH), Qunya (Konya) mint. Obv: kalima and citation of caliph: "la ilah illa allah / muhammad rasul allah/ al-imam al-musta’sim / billah amir al-mu'nimin," in square; date 646 AH in margins. Rev: name and titles of Kayaka'us II: "as-sultan al-azam / zill allah fi al-alam /'izz al-dunya wa ud-din / kay kawus bin kay khusraw," mint formula for Qunya around. 22.5mm, 3.03g. Ref: Album 1223.1.

    Orient, MA – Rumseldschuken, "drei Brüder", AR dirham, 1249-1250 AD, A-1227..png
    Seljuq Sultanate of Rum, under Kayka'us II, Qilij Arslan IV, Kayqubad II ("the three brothers"), citing caliph al-Musta'sim, AR dirham, 1249–1250 AD (647 AH), Siwas mint. Obv: kalima and citation of caliph "la ilah illa allah / muhammad rasul allah al-imam / al-musta'sim billah amir al-mu / 'minin;" afterwards mint and date formula for Siwas 647 AH. Rev: names and titles of the three brothers: "al-salatin al-a'azim / 'izz al-dunya wa ud-din kay kawus / wa rukn al-dunya wa ud-din qilij arslan / wa ’ala al-dunya wa ud-din kayqubad / ibn kay khusraw barahin amir al-mu’minin." 23mm, 3,02g. Ref: Album 1227.

    Orient, MA – Rumseldschuken, Kaykhusraw III, AR Dirham, 1276–1277, A-1232..png
    Seljuq Sultanate of Rum, Ghiyas ad-Din Kaykhusraw III, AR dirham, 1276–1277 AD (674 AH), Ma'dan Lulueh mint. Obv: “al-mulk lillah” (‘sovereignty belongs to God’) within polylobe; around, mint and date formula for Ma’dan Lulueh 674 AH. Rev: name and titles of Kaykhusraw III: “al-sultan al-azam / ghiyath al-dunya wa al-din / abu al fath kay khusraw / ibn qilij arslan.” 24mm, 2,93 g. Ref: Album 1232; Mitchiner 1001.
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