For some coins this is easy, if the kings name is on it then the coin is dated to the years the king ruled. For example: Kassandros Antipatrou Bronze Coin “One Unit” (305 B.C. - 297 B.C) Obverse:Head of beardless Herakles right, wearing lion skin Reverse:BASILEWS KASSANDROU, above and beneath horseman riding right, crowning horse with a wreath, Star in right field, Φ monogram beneath horse. But now it gets a little more difficult for me, coins especially in the classical period just have either the name or abbreviations from the town on it, along with objects/animals related to the town. For example: Kyzikos, Mysia. Obol (450 B.C. - 400 B.C) Obverse: Forepart of boar left, retrograde E on body, tunny fish swimming upwards behind. Reverse: Head of roaring lion left, within shallow incuse square. How do we know this type of coin was only made between 450-400 B.C., on what evidence is this based? Also for magistrates, is the date of their office ever recorded that such specific dating can be given? In this case a Rhodian drachm from magistrate Ainetor with a dating between 205-190 B.C. Rhodos magistrate Ainetor drachm (205 B.C. - 190 B.C) Obverse: Facing head of Helios with flowing hair Reverse: AINHTΩΡ above, Ρ-O below, rose in bloom with bud to right, butterfly to left. I have already did some deeper research to my coin from Gortyna, Crete: Crete, Gortyna. Bronze coin (85–82 B.C.) Obverse: Head of Hermes left, wearing petasos. Reverse: Bull butting left; caduceus above; in exergue: ΓΟΡΤ; all within circle of dots. To this coin a dating is given specifically of 85-82 B.C., I find this very precise. Now I have read the Journal article "The Bronze Coinage of Gortyn" from ANNE E. JACKSON in the Numismatic Chronicle 1971. It turns out they found tetradrachms and drachms from Gortyna in the same hoard as bronze coins of this type, Price dated the tetradrachms 82 B.C. and so they automatically assumed that the bronze coins are also from 82 B.C. Also, Gortyna switched to the attic standard in 85 B.C., assuming that the striking of these bronze coins are connected to the issue of (tetra)drachms of the attic standard, then the same magistrate could have issued these bronze coins as well at 85 B.C. This gives this bronze coin a dating of 85-82 B.C. However this is just a specific example and doesn't really make me understand how all the other hundreds, thousands of ancient silver and bronze coins were dated? I appreciate your answers!