Flashcards in Stats Deck (28)

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1

## What is nominal data?

### Data that is categorical e.g. gender, colour

2

## What is ordinal data?

### Data that has a natural order e.g. position in a race

3

## What is continuous data?

### Data that is on a scale where differences between intervals are always the same e.g. height

4

## What is the independent variable?

### Variable manipulated by the experimenter - the one you use to test effects on the dependent variable

5

## What is the dependent variable?

###
Variable that you measure

Dependent on the independent variable

6

## What is the confounding variable?

### Variable that has an effect on the dependent variable but that you are not interested in testing.

7

## What is a between subjects design?

### Independent samples where each subject is presented in a different condition

8

## What is a within subjects design?

### Related samples where each participant receives all conditions

9

## What is inter-observer reliability?

### Do 2 people get the same result when examining the sample?

10

## What is intra-observer reliability?

### Does one person get the same result when examining the sample at different times?

11

## From basic tests how do you work out if the data is normally distributed?

###
Do a mean, median and mode test.

If all values are relatively similar data is normally distributed.

12

## What tests determine whether data is normally distributed?

###
Kolmogorov-Smirmoff Test

Shapiro-Wilk Test

13

## What tests do you use to test the means of two sets of data for differences?

###
Two independent sample t-test

Two paired smaple t-test

14

## What test do you use to test the variance of two sets of data?

### One sample t-test

15

## What test do you use to test the means of more than two sets of data for differences?

###
One way ANOVA

Two way ANOVA

16

## What do the terms one sided/two sided (tailed) mean when describing hypotheses?

###
One tailed - can be answered with yes or no e.g. "a happy dog will eat more" - tells you what type of effect there will be

Two tailed - can be answered with different outcomes e.g. "mood affects the appetite of dogs" - tells you there will be an effect

17

## What is a type 1 error?

###
Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true

aka diagnosing a male as pregnant

18

## What is a type 2 error?

###
Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false

aka telling a pregnant lady she is not pregnant

19

## If your data was non-parametric what test would you do instead of an independent samples t-test?

### Mann-Whitney U test

20

## If your data was non-parametric what test would you do instead of a paired samples t-test?

### Wilcoxon Signed-rank test

21

## What does it mean if a study is under-powered?

### Too little data collected so nothing looks statistically significant

22

## What does it mean if a study is over-powered?

### Too much data collected so everything looks statistically significant

23

## What two forms do you need to give the participants of your study?

###
Ethics consent form

Participant information sheet

24

## How do u calculate the mean?

### Add all numbers divide by sample size

25

## How do u calculate mode?

### Most common number

26

## How do u calculate median?

### Middle number

27

## How do u calculate standard deviation?

###
Work out the Mean (the simple average of the numbers)

Then for each number: subtract the Mean and square the result.

Then work out the mean of those squared differences.

Take the square root of that and we are done!

28