Christian Crusader Imitation of Islamic, Ayyubids, al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf II, Prince of Aleppo, 634-658 AH 1236-1259 AD, BALOG 755 (655 AH), AR Dirham, six-pointed-star type, Halab (Aleppo) mint These imitation dirhems were minted by crusaders in the 13th century in imitation of regional coinage as they were well accepted in trade. The practice continued for many years before Odo of Chateauroux from the Court of Louis the IXth of France, was scandalized by the idea that the Franks were minting coins professing Muslim faith and the name of Mohammad. He wrote to Pope Innocent IV to inform him. In 1253, a letter from Pope Innocent called out the practice as unworthy and abominable, and forbade the practice of minting coins with the name of Mohammad and his birth date. This didn't deter the crusaders from minting dirhems: they tried minting coins in 1251, after Odo’s complaint and before the pope took action, with Christian legends and some with crosses. As seen on this coin from 2018 Leu Web Auction 4 Lot 1335 (not my coin): These weren't well accepted, so they found a loophole in the order, and began again imitating the Ayyubid coins, shifting to non-sectarian legends in the margins "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate" (Bates Type V or VI) which didn't offend either faith. Crusader coin imitating AR Dirhem of Ayyubid al-Salih I Isma'il, mint Acre Israel ~AD 1252-1253 Here are 3 others that I haven't been able to identify beyond "Kings of Jerusalem, Crusader imitating AR dirhem". The first two both appear to imitating a coin of Ayyubid al-Salih Isma'il / Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir. Maintained notes on these coins with relevant references can be found in my "Notes on Ancient Coins". Any info on attribution and opinions on the metal on the first coin are much appreciated. Post your dirhems from this period or anything else you find interesting or entertaining.