! Very choice examples of the reduced size folles struck after Justinian's War in Italy, 2nd phase, AD 541-554 are even more difficult to find. I recently scored a handsome Year 31 (AD 557-558) follis with some surface roughness & hard green deposits on the reverse. BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Justinian I, AD 527-565, Nicomedia Mint, Officina #2, Dated Year 31 (557-558). Obverse: Helmeted & cuirassed bust of Justinian holding a globus cruciger & shield decorated with a horseman spearing a fallen enemy, cross in right field. D N JVSTINIANVS PP AVG. Reverse: Large M with cross above, ANNO in left field, XXXI in right field, NIKO in exergue. AE 40 nummi: 18.43 gm, 33 mm, 6 h. Sear 201. Ex Peter J. Merani Collection, Bought from Mark E. Reid (The Time Machine), December 6, 1998. Justinian's goal of reconquering Italy was a long, bloody, & expensive series of battles. It took 35,000 troops, 300,000 pounds of gold, & very unpopular tax increases to accomplish his ambition ! It was also necessary to leave 16,000 troops garrisoned in Italy. It is no surprise that the enormous expenses of conducting wars in the Eastern Byzantine Empire, Europe & Africa, coupled with the devastating effects of the bubonic plague, that the bronze coinage shrunk in size . Pictured below is a Byzantine 40 nummi coin struck in Year 13 for comparison. BYZANTINE EMPIRE. Justinian I, AD 527-565, Constantinople Mint, Officina #2, Dated Year 13 (AD 539-540). AE 40 Nummi: 23.23 gm, 40 mm, 6 h. Sear 163. Ex Tom Cederlind. If any CT members have reduced size Justinian I folles I'd like to see them .