Septimius Severus arrives in Rome

Discussion in 'Ancient Coins' started by Valentinian, Oct 26, 2021.

  1. Valentinian

    Valentinian Supporter! Supporter

    "ADVENTVS" means "arrival". The arrival of the emperor to Rome was a major event worthy of celebration and commemoration.


    Septimius Severus (193-211) arrives to Rome after receiving his 8th triumph for the fall of Byzantium in late 195 after the death of Pescennius Niger and before continuing on to confront Clodius Albinus in Gaul.
    [EDIT: See below in this thread for a revised occasion and date: Our member Curtis Clay mentions his arguments are expounded on the Forum list and I found them here:
    I'll have to change my web page!]
    18 mm. 3.60 grams.
    Laureate head right
    Emperor on horseback, raising right hand in greeting.
    RIC 74. BMC 151. Hill 232. Sear II 6256.
    Septimius Severus had eleven imperatorial acclamations. Which event is referred to by which number has been revised. [Edit: See the "EDIT" above.] RIC (published in 1936), BMC (published in 1975), and Birley (in Septimius Severus, published in 1988) say VIII refers to the fall of Byzantium in late 195, which had initially been the headquarters of Niger and held out for two long years--long after Niger had left it and been killed much further east at the Battle of Issus (c. April, 194). So, this coin was issued at Rome after Septimius's return to Rome after defeating Albinus in Gaul. [This paragraph has changed since I first posted it.]

    Roman imperial legends often mention numbers for triumphs such as "IMP VIII" here, but they are usually on reverses. Septimius has IMP-numbers in the obverse legend more often than other emperors.

    I have a web page on ADVENTVS types:
    This coin has been newly added to that page.

    Show us an ADVENTVS coin or a coin with IMP in the obverse legend.
    Last edited: Oct 26, 2021
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  3. Marsman

    Marsman Well-Known Member

    This reverse type commemorates the return of the royal family to Rome after the second Eastern campaign.

    Septimius Severus, denarius.
    Rome mint, 202 AD.
    RIC 248, RSC1.
    18 mm, 3,26 g.
    Obv. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head of Septimius Severus right.
    Rev. ADVENT AVGG, Septimius on horseback left with raised hand & spear; before him, soldier holding vexillum & restraining the horse by its bridle.
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  4. GinoLR

    GinoLR Well-Known Member

    27 29 mm 20 56 g.jpg
    Septimius Severus, sestertius, 27-29 mm, 20.56 g. It is extremely worn, nearly all legends have been rubbed off, but I like its patina. RIC IV Septimius Severus 719b.
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  5. Bing

    Bing Illegitimi non carborundum Supporter

  6. Shea19

    Shea19 Supporter! Supporter

    Here is an Adventus type of Trajan Decius...there certainly were a lot of new emperors making their “arrival” around this time :)

    Trajan Decius, AR antoninianus (22 mm, 4.05 g). Rome, 249-250 AD, IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Trajan Decius r./ ADVENTVS AVG, emperor on horseback l. , extending arm in salute and holding scepter. RIC 11b
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  7. hotwheelsearl

    hotwheelsearl Well-Known Member

    Kind of a bummer that out of the (presumably) thousands of equestrian emperor statues, only one complete one exists that I know of, and maybe a couple other incomplete ones.

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  8. curtislclay

    curtislclay Well-Known Member

    As I discovered in 1972 and explained in a detailed Forum thread (search for Battle of Lugdunum), the traditional assignment of Septimius' defeat of Albinus near Lugdunum to 19 February 197, occasioning the emperor's IMP VIIII, is an error; actually the battle took place a year earlier, on 19 February 196, and occasioned Septimius' IMP VIII.

    So Valentinian's Arrival type actually commemorates the emperor's return to Rome in c. summer 196, a couple of months after defeating Albinus at Lugdunum on 19 February of that year.
    Last edited: Oct 26, 2021
  9. Roman Collector

    Roman Collector Supporter! Supporter

    One for T-Bone Tuesday!

    Trebonianus Gallus, AD 251-253.
    Roman AR antoninianus, 3.82 g, 19.7 mm, 11 h.
    Antioch, third emission, AD 252-253.
    Obv: IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
    Rev: ADVENTVS AVG, Emperor on horseback, left, raising right hand and holding scepter.
    Refs: RIC 79; Cohen 2; RCV 9622; Hunter 56; ERIC II 44.
  10. Curtisimo

    Curtisimo the Great(ish) Supporter

    Good thread and nice coin @Valentinian . My favorite ADVENTVS in my collection is of Philip I after his retreat from the east.

    Roman Empire
    Philip I the Arab (AD 244-249)
    AR Antoninianus, Rome mint, struck ca. AD 245
    Dia.: 23 mm
    Wt.: 4.36 g
    Obv.: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
    Rev.: ADVENTVS AVGG; Philip on horseback left, raising right hand and holding spear
    Ref.: RIC IV 26b
    Ex David Kallai (ca. 1908-1924); Ex AMCC 2, lot 194 (Nov. 9, 2019)
  11. wittwolf

    wittwolf Well-Known Member

    Nice topic, I only have one ADVENTVS coin from the reign of Emperor Probus who was on tour very much for all his reign but seemingly had enough time to visit rome at some point:
    Emperor Probus - ADVENTVS AVG - Rome mint
  12. gogili1977

    gogili1977 Well-Known Member

  13. GinoLR

    GinoLR Well-Known Member

    The rev. legend is ADVENTVS AVGG, so there must be two Augusti entering Rome. Philip Jr was only Caesar in 244-247, he was promoted to the rank of Augustus in 247. So why did RIC and other catalogues date 244-247 the Philip coins with AVGG legend ?
  14. Valentinian

    Valentinian Supporter! Supporter

    If there were two rulers, one Augustus and one Caesar, Rome used "AVGG" for the plural anyway, even though it looks like it should refer to two Augusti. The alternative, "AVG ET CAES" was awkward and more precise than they cared to be.
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  15. Blake Davis

    Blake Davis Well-Known Member

    I guess PROFECTIO means leaving Rome.
  16. maridvnvm

    maridvnvm Well-Known Member

    @wittwolf - I am sorry to inform you that you Probus is a modern fake. It is part of a large batch of coins created over a decade ago that was sold into the market in batches of 1,000. Here are a couple more from the same dies

  17. maridvnvm

    maridvnvm Well-Known Member

    A really scrappy Elagabalus Ae As
    Aurelian arriving whilst spearing two enemies
    A double Probus arrival - the first arriving in Lugdunum Mid to Late A.D. 277 on his way to do battle with the Gauls and the second on his triumphal return through Lugdunum .

    Obv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
    Rev:– ADVENTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding left, right hand raised, left holding sceptre; at foot, captive
    Minted in Lugdunum (IIII) Emission 4 Officina 1. Mid to Late A.D. 277
    Reference(s) – Cohen 68. Bastien 197 (6). RIC 19 Bust Type F var (officina)

    3.33 gms. 45 degrees. 23.18 mm.

    Ex barnaba6 collection. ex Philippe Gysen collection
    Obv:– VIRTVS PRO-BI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, decorated with emperor riding past row of soldiers with shields
    Rev:– ADVENTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding left, right hand raised, left holding sceptre; at foot, captive
    Minted in Lugdunum (IIII) Emission 5 Officina 4. End A.D. 277 to Early A.D. 278
    References:– Cohen 69. Bastien 256 (2 examples). RIC 64 Bust Type G (S)

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  18. Orange Julius

    Orange Julius Well-Known Member

    Great coins! Interesting information on the occasion for their issue as well. Do you have similar information for the reason for this issue from Rome?
    Probus - ADVENTVS AVG - Rome - RIC 58
  19. wittwolf

    wittwolf Well-Known Member

    @maridvnvm Thats sad to hear. I have seen those fakes before but was of the opinion that the mix of the off-centered strike and the patina that looked like someone cleaned it a bit too much was perhabs a sign of my coin beeing an original.
    Just for not getting tricked again in the future, what would be the biggest warning sign besides the fact that there are know fakes of this type? I have compared it with other examples on now and possibly the most striking difference seems to be the details on the breastplate of the bust.
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  20. maridvnvm

    maridvnvm Well-Known Member

    There seems to be a difference between ADVENTVS AVG issues and ADVENTVS PROBI AVG issues. ADVENTVS AVG seems to be more generic that the emperor "has arrived somewhere" where the ADVENTVS PROBI AVG issues seem to be the visit of the emperor to the issuing city.

    I have this written in my notes but I cannot find the source that I got it from so it should be treated with a pinch of salt.

    Rome produced ADVENTVS PROBI AVG in the 2nd issue, dated A.D. 277, which refers to his arrival in Rome

    In subsequent years these are all ADVENTVS AVG coins...
    Issue 3 - A.D. 278 (* issue)
    Issue 4 - A.D. 279 (crescent / dot in crescent issue)
    Issue 5 - A.D. 280 (wreath issue)
    Issue 6 - A.D. 281 (thunderbolt issue)
    Issue 7 - A.D. 282 (AEQVITI issue)
  21. GinoLR

    GinoLR Well-Known Member

    Septimius Severus entered Rome several times during his carreer as Augustus. His first entry was in 193 during the "expeditio urbana". It is described by Cassius Dio who was himself part of the parade as a senator : "After doing this Severus entered Rome. He advanced as far as the gates on horseback and in cavalry costume, but there he changed to civilian attire and proceeded on foot; and the entire army, both infantry and cavalry, accompanied him in full armour. 4 The spectacle proved the most brilliant of any that I have witnessed; for the whole city had been decked with garlands of flowers and laurel and adorned with richly coloured stuffs, and it was ablaze with torches and burning incense; the citizens, wearing white robes and with radiant countenances, uttered many shouts of good omen; the soldiers, too, stood out conspicuous in their armour as they moved about like participants in some holiday procession; and finally, we senators were walking about in state. The crowd chafed in its eagerness to see him to hear him say something, as if he had been somehow changed by his good fortune; and some of them held one another aloft, that from a higher position they might catch sight of him." This first adventus was not mentioned in coinage.

    After this, there was another one in 197 (or 196 cf. Curtis Clay) when back from the "expeditio gallica". This one is told by Herodian : "[3.8.3] When he had completed the journey at his usual rapid pace, he entered Rome, raging at Albinus' surviving friends. The citizens, carrying laurel branches, welcomed him with all honor and praise; the Senate also came out to greet him, most of them standing before him in abject dread, convinced that he would not spare their lives." This adventus was officially called "adventus felicissimus" as we can read on coins. 4955094.jpg

    He left Rome soon afterwards for his ambitious expedition against the Parthian Empire and was back in 202. A big Adventus celebration was organized at this occasion. The emperors (now there were 2 Augusti, Caracalla had been raised to this rank) came back by boat, as can be seen on aurei and denarii 3711687.jpg , and must have entered Rome the traditional way, on horseback and in military attire to the gate 1484965.jpg , then probably in toga inside the pomoerium. But I don't think we have literary testimonies left of this adventus.

    There are also some fake news : coins of Septimius Severus, or Caracalla, or Geta, with the name "Britannicus" the senate voted them in 210 while they were all in Britain, with the rev. legend "Adventus Augusti" 502389.jpg . The Rome mint must have anticipated the coming back of the emperors. Caracalla and Geta did make this adventus in 211 or 212 but not Septimius Severus who died in York and only came back in a purple urn. (of course the coins are not mine !!! ;))
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