Reading AH (Muslem Era) dates on Arabic nation's (Arab Emerates, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Yeman, etc.) coinage is easy. Converting from Muslem Era dates to Christian Era (CE) dates is just as easy. Here's the Muslim numerals reading from left to right, high to low:
Muslim numerals ۰ ۱ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۵ ۶ ۷ ۸ ۹
Two Muslim alphabetic numeric tables evolved from an India numeric system of glyphs. Some Muslim countries use the above symbols exclusively. Some use a different adaptation of 4 and 6. 4 looks like an E or backwards 3; 6 looks like a 7 (the upper tip of the 6 was eliminated). Here's that chart.
Arabic-Indic Numbers ٠ ١ ٢ ٣ ٤ ٥ ٦ ٧ ٨ ٩
Some countries employ both adaptations (Arabic-Indic during one year or more, Muslim numerals in other years.
European or CE numerals are derivations of the AH numerical glyphs. European and other Western nations have repositioned (juxtipositioned) the 2 and 3, enlarged the 4, completely changed 5 through 8 plus the zero, but left 9 as is. The solid dot (solid diamond zero glyph) was changed to the hollow 0 shape, so the CE (Western Arabic or AD) numerals reading left to right, from high to low are:
Christian Era 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Take a look at this Egyptian silver 20 Qirsh Coin. Notice the date just above base of wreath (photo courtesy of Don's World Coin Gallery):
Its Muslim AH date is ۱ ۳ ۲ ۷ so you now know (from theaboveAH chart) that the AH date is 1327in Western Arabic numerals. To ascertain the CE date you can look in your Krause World Coins 1901-2000 catalog and locate "KM310 20 Qirsh." The text reads, "AH 1327(1910) H." (1910) is the CE (AD) date. H designates the Heaton Mint in Birmingham, England.
Many modern Islamic coins bear both AH and CE dates on them. A few even use Western glyphs for the CE dates, but most use Muslim glyphs for both dates. Take a look at this Egyptian 10 Piastres bearing both dates in Muslim glyphs (photo courtesy of worldcoingallery.com) The AH date is on the right (1397). The CE (AD) date is the one on the left (1977): Notice the large ۱۰slightly below the center of the coin? They are the Muslimnumerals for 10, as this is a 10 Piastres coin.
Now here's an Egyptian 10 Piastres coin using the Arabic-Indic number glyphs for both CE and AH dates (CE1964 on top obverse and about 7 o'clock on reverse - AH1384 at about 4 o'clock on reverse):
If you have no catalog or are looking at a coin bearing only one date (like the 20 Qirsh coin dated 1327 here's the formula to easily ascertain the CE date: Multiply the AH date (1327) by .03 (3%) which equals 39.38. Round to nearest whole number (39) Subtract 39 from 1327 which equals 1288. Add 622 to 1288 which equals 1910.
Easy right? Use this equation to convert any AH date to a CE date:
AH date times 3% (.03), round amount to nearest whole number, subtract amount from AH date, then add 622.
Why deduct 3%?The Muslim calendar year is 2.8% (11 days) shorter thanthe Gregorian (Julian) calendar year. To simpliy the formulawe foregothe triple digit plus decimal number .028 for the simpler number .03 and round to the nearest whole number.
Why add 622? The Muslim calendar owes its inception to the CE (AD) year 622, the year Mohammed fled Mecca escaping to Medina avoiding persecution from Koreish tribesmen. AH is actually Anno Hegirae (Jehira - Hegira - Hijira).
Thought you should know just how easy it is...